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see oratoryoratory,
the art of swaying an audience by eloquent speech. In ancient Greece and Rome oratory was included under the term rhetoric, which meant the art of composing as well as delivering a speech.
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the study of oratory and prose in general. Rhetoric as an art originated in Greece in the fifth century B.C. and was reduced to a system in the third and second centuries B.C. Roman oratory dates from the first century B.C. The greatest theoreticians of ancient rhetoric were Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian.

Classic rhetoric was divided into five parts: invention, arrangement, verbal expression, memorization, and delivery. Invention is the systematization of the contents and proofs of a speech. Arrangement is the division of a speech into the introduction exposition, elaboration—proofs to support one’s own point of view and refutations of the arguments of one’s opponent—and conclusion. Verbal expression is the choice and combination of words, figures of speech, and rhetorical devices and—depending on the use of these elements—the choice of the simple, middle, or high style of speech.

Classical rhetoric, which was oriented primarily toward legal and ceremonial speeches, was studied in the Middle Ages mainly for the purpose of writing letters and sermons. During the Renaissance and the period of classicism, classical rhetoric was brought to bear on all types of prose. In Russia, the classical treatment of this “pervasive” rhetoric was given by M. V. Lomonosov in A Short Handbook on Eloquence (1748). Rhetoric was part of an education in the humanities until the 19th century, when its main component—verbal expression—merged with stylistics as part of the theory of literature and the remaining components lost their practical significance. The word “rhetoric” itself has taken on the offensive connotation of pompous and empty speech.


Cicero. Tri traktata ob oratorskom iskusstve. Moscow, 1972.
Antichnye teorii iazyka i stilia. Edited by O. Freidenberg. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Lausberg, H. Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, vols. 1-2. Munich, 1960.
Martin, J. Antike Rhetorik. Munich, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
Another paradigmatic example in which linguistic skills prompted the quality of philosophical work is the trajectory of Quine, who famously knew (and worked in) several languages other than English.
Social and emotional behavior problems have been found to be associated with insufficient development of linguistic skills (Lindsay, Dockrell, & Strand, 2007; Serafica, 1990).
Returning home, Pam put her musical and linguistic skills to good use as a cataloguer in Blackwell's Music Shop, Oxford, where she spent some seven years.
The paper's part- I will test linguistic skills and part- II will assess their creative writing.
If this private member's bill passes the Senate (it already passed the House of Commons by 140 votes to 137, supported by the Bloc Quebecois, NDR and Liberals), it will mean that justices will be chosen more for their linguistic skills than for their legal reasoning.
Her press team has had the unenviable task of trying to limit the tide of criticisms of her linguistic skills, which extend to limited but not fluent French, her lack of experience in diplomacy or foreign policy and relatively short history of working in Brussels, which includes a partial term as trade commissioner.
Summary: Now that my confidence in Arabic is gradually improving, I have begun to wonder who I should thank for my new linguistic skills.
The program's aims are "increasing mutual understanding, empowering the successor generation to become international leaders and ensuring that young Americans develop the linguistic skills and cultural awareness to help solve the international community's shared problems," said Maura Pally, acting assistant secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs.
His linguistic skills are strong--a rare asset even among historians of early modern religion--permitting him to draw on Jesuit letters and documents written in Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Latin, and Portuguese.
He noted that Jordan was one of the first countries to contribute peacekeeprs to United Nations missions across the world and that such linguistic skills would help them undertake their tasks with high professionalism.
Linguistic Competencies is composed of four components: Linguistic Knowledge (phonology, vocabulary, grammar etc), Linguistic Skills (macroskills), Strategies, and Cultural Awareness.
Glomski's bibliography reflects her impressive linguistic skills while at the same time it reveals the ways that scholarship follows linguistic and nationalist contours.