Lining


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Idioms, Wikipedia.
Related to Lining: LinkedIn

lining

1. 
a. material used to line a garment, curtain, etc.
b. (as modifier): lining satin
2. Civil engineering a layer of concrete, brick, or timber, etc., used in canals to prevent them leaking or in tunnels or shafts to prevent them falling in

Lining

Material which covers any interior surface, such as a framework around a door or window or boarding that covers interior surfaces of a building.

Lining

 

(Russian, garnisazh; from French garnissage), a hard protective layer formed during a melting process on the inner (working) surface of some metallurgical units subjected to intensive cooling. In furnaces with cooled lining, the lining is principally obtained as a result of physical and chemical interacting of the charge, gases, and the material of the cooled walls; in furnaces without lining it is obtained as a result of intensive water cooling of the molten or softened charge products in metallic cooling units (usually copper or steel). In the last case, thin crusts of solidified products are formed, with the thickness depending on melting conditions, especially on the furnace’s cooling speed.


Lining

 

(or casing), a member that reinforces an underground structure and imparts to it the shape required for normal use.

In contrast to temporary mine support, lining is designed for permanent use. The shape and size of lining are determined by the dimensions, depth of bedding, and purpose of the underground structure (tunnels, underground hydroelectric power plants, garages, warehouses, and wine cellars), and also by the nature of the loads acting on the structure (rock pressure, hydrostatic pressure, and traveling loads). Lining may be made from cast concrete and reinforced concrete, prefabricated concrete, or metal (cast iron or, less frequently, steel). Tunnel lining is characterized by great diversity.

Cast concrete and reinforced-concrete lining is used mainly in tunnels of highly complex design and large cross section, usually driven by the heading method. The tunnels may be rectangular (the most common type), as well as oval or parabolic. As of 1974, research and development work on the introduction of a new type of cast-pressed lining was under way. Such lining is particularly suitable for the construction of hydraulic-engineering tunnels and open-line subway tunnels that are driven by the shield method and is distinguished by high strength and water-impermeability and by the smoothness of the inside surface.

Prefabricated lining may be curved or rectilinear. The first type is used mainly for tunnels driven by the shield or erector method (mainly subway tunnels). Prefabricated curved lining may be made from cast iron or reinforced concrete. Cast-iron lining (cast-iron tubes) is used in water-saturated rock with high hydrostatic pressure; reinforced-concrete lining may have a solid cross section, or it may be ribbed. It is used in comparatively dry rock. Imperviousness to water is achieved by waterproofing the joints (for example, with expanding cement) or by grouting the space around the lining with a mixture of sand and cement (or bentonite). If the tunnel is being driven in a waterlogged area, prefabricated reinforced-concrete lining can be made water-impermeable by means of an internal waterproof cover in the form of a jacket or by providing an external or internal shield during manufacture of lining modules. In weak clay and sand soils (particularly in the construction of shallow tunnels), prefabricated reinforced-concrete lining that is compressed by the rock can be used effectively; thus, the rock mass and the lining work together to prevent settling of the upper soil layers. Prefabricated reinforced-concrete lining with a rectilinear contour has been widely used for subway tunnels constructed by the trench method. This type of lining can be made water-impermeable by applying a waterproofing coating to the outside or by gluing on a waterproofing material in roll form (waterproof glass fabric, polyethylene, and so on). The waterproof covering is applied during production of lining modules.

REFERENCES

Chasovitin, P. A. Tonnel’nye obdelki iz sbornogo zhelezobetona. Moscow, 1959.
Tonneli i metropoliteny. Edited by V. P. Volkov. Moscow, 1970.

IA. G. GEL’MAN


Lining

 

(in Russian, futerovka), a protective covering on the inner surface of a heat-producing unit and its components—for example, a furnace, a firebox, a ladle, a flue, or piping—and of chemical equipment, such as an etching bath. A lining may be made of bricks, slabs, blocks, concrete, a rammed material, or shotcrete. Depending on the purpose of the lining and on the type of material used, a lining may be refractory, acidproof, or heat-insulating.

In Russian, the term futerovka is sometimes also applied to a facing—that is, to a protective covering on the outer surface of a component—if the component’s outer surface is subjected to, for example, heat fluxes or corrosive agents.

lining

[′līn·iŋ]
(materials)
A material used to protect inner surfaces, as of tunnels, pipes, or process equipment.

lining

1. Material which covers any interior surface, such as framework around a door or window, or boarding which covers the interior surfaces of a building.
2. Same as flue lining.
References in periodicals archive ?
Previous studies have identified eight causes for bottom erosion in a coreless induction furnace with a silica lining.
While all of these factors can influence lining wear, the reason why ductile base iron wears the lining more than gray iron continues to elude explanation.
Throwing water on a hot lining can be dangerous - operators must remain cautious when adding water to the furnace.
The goal of the chipping is to develop a rough surface that will allow the patch to mesh with the original lining without cracking the "hard face" of the lining.
If sufficient time is not allowed for the refractories to bond, the lining is more prone to attack by molten metal and slag.
Monitoring Normal Lining Wear - Refractory linings and crucibles are subject to normal wear as a result of the scraping action of the metal on the furnace walls.
Now that dry vibrated linings seem to be the linings of choice, monitoring of the conductance and/or reactance ratios doesn't provide metalcasters with all the information needed to determine the condition of the lining.
When a refractory lining is installed, not all of the lining volume is occupied by the refractory grain.
If this moisture-bearing refractory is heated too rapidly, pressurized steam is generated within the lining.
If the charge material excessively impacts the refractory lining, it can break pieces of refractory from the wall.
Caution should be exercised, however, against over insulating a furnace lining.
After nearly two years of operation, the ceramic fiber moldable lining has performed well, especially in installation flexibility, thermal shock resistance and high insulation properties.