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Lipetsk(lyē`pyĭtsk), city (1989 pop. 450,000), capital of Lipetsk region, E central European Russia, on the Voronezh River. It is the center of an iron-ore-mining area. Industrial products include steel, fertilizer, tractors, food products, cement, household appliances, and metal goods. The city has mineral springs and since the 18th cent. has been a health resort center. It was founded in the 13th cent., completely destroyed by the Tatars at the end of the 13th cent., and rebuilt (1707) by Peter the Great as a metallurgical center.
a city, the center of Lipetsk Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on both sides of the Voronezh River in the Don Basin. A railroad station on the Orel-Griazi-Volgograd line, located 508 km southeast of Moscow. Population, 327,000 (1973; 21,000 in 1926; 67,000 in 1939; 157,000 in 1959; and 289,000 in 1970).
Lipetsk was mentioned in the chronicles in the 13th century. In 1284 it was destroyed by the Tatars. In 1702, Peter I built a cast iron plant for producing artillery shells at the site of iron ore deposits in the village of Lipovka. (The plant was closed when the Lugansk Plant was built in 1795.) In 1709 the village of Lipovka was renamed the village of Lipetskie Zavody (the sloboda, or tax-exempt settlement, of Lipskie Zheleznye Zavody). In 1779, Lipetsk became a district city within the Tambov Vicegerency (Tambov Province from 1796). The Lipetsk Congress was held in Lipetsk in 1879. Social Democratic organizations arose in the city in the early 20th century. Soviet power was established in Lipetsk in November 1917. The prewar five-year plans transformed Lipetsk from a small city into a big industrial center.
Ferrous metallurgy holds first place in the industry of Lipetsk. The industry is represented by the Novolipetsk Metallurgical Plant, the Svobodny Sokol Plant, machine-building and metalworking plants (such as the Tsentrolit Plant and the Lipetsk Tractor Plant), and plants producing machine tools and starting engines; these enterprises account for over four-fifths of the city’s gross output. The building materials industry produces cement, silicate bricks, and construction lime; the chemical industry produces mineral fertilizers and lacquers. Lipetsk also produces food products, clothing, and furniture, and it has a thermoelectric power plant. The educational and cultural institutions of Lipetsk include pedagogical and polytechnic institutes, a department of the All-Union Correspondence Finance and Economics Institute, six secondary specialized educational institutions (metallurgical, machine-building, construction, and cooperative technicums, as well as medical and music colleges), the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute of Secondary Metals, a drama theater, a puppet theater, and a museum of local lore.
Lipetsk is one of Russia’s oldest mud-bath resorts and spas. (It was opened in 1805.) The summer is warm, with an average July temperature of 20°C, and the winter is moderately mild, with an average January temperature of — 10°C; precipitation totals about 490 mm a year. The therapeutic remedies are peat mud and chalybeate bicarbonate calcium springs; the sodium sulfate and chloride water of these springs, with the chemical composition
is used for baths and for drinking. Lipetsk offers treatment to patients with diseases of the muscles and bones, digestive and gynecological diseases, and diseases of the nervous system. It has a sanatorium, a bathhouse, and facilities for mud baths.
REFERENCESLipetsk (Spravochnik-putevoditeV). [Voronezh] 1967.
Martynov, A. F., and V. M. Zhdanov. Iz proshlogo Lipetskogo kraia. Lipetsk, 1959.