Lipmann, Fritz (Albert)(1899–1986) biochemist; born in Koenigsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He performed research in cell energy metabolism in Europe (1927–39), taking a year (1931–32) as fellow at the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller University). Fearing the rise of Nazism, he emigrated to the U.S.A. to join Cornell (1939–41), then moved to Harvard and the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston) (1941–57). Beginning in 1945, he continued his studies of carbohydrate-fueled energy systems, discovered coenzyme A, necessary for cellular energy generation, and further clarified the Krebs citric acid energy cycle. For his pioneering work in cellular biochemistry, he shared the 1953 Nobel Prize in physiology with English biochemist Hans Krebs. In 1957 he returned to Rockefeller, pursuing research on phosphate compounds, cancer cells, thyroid hormones, and bodily energy systems until his death.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.