List of Elementary Particles

Related article: elementary particles elementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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Elementary Particles

Leptons
Particle Symbol Mass (MeV/c2) Electric Charge
electron e- 0.511 −1
muon μ- 105.7 −1
tau τ 1784.1 −1
electron neutrino νe <7.3×10−6 0
muon neutrino νμ <0.27 0
tau neutrino ντ <35 0

Quarks1
down d 5–15 − 1-3
up u 2–8 2-3
strange s 100–300 − 1-3
charm c 1300–1700 2-3
bottom b 4700–5300 − 1-3
top t >91,000 2-3

Gauge Bosons
photon &ggr; 0 0
gluon g 0 0
W-boson W 80,200 1
Z-boson Z 91,170 0

Some Sample Hadrons
positive pion π+ 139.6 1
positive kaon K+ 493.7 1
proton p 938.3 1
neutron n 939.6 0
lambda &Lgr; 1115.6 0
For each of these particles, except the photon, gluon, and Z-boson, there is an antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charge. In most cases the antiparticle is denoted by an overbar over the particle symbol.
1 Because quarks cannot be isolated, the masses given for them are approximate.
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