List of National Parks and Monuments

Related articles: King of Prussia King of Prussia,
industrialized suburban area (1990 pop. 18,406), Montgomery co., SE Pa. It has glass and steel fabricating, food processing, printing and publishing, and varied manufacturing (textiles, liquified petroleum gas, water-treatment and electrical equipment, motors
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, Kings Canyon National Park Kings Canyon National Park,
461,901 acres (187,070 hectares), E central California. Largely wilderness, the park features summits of the High Sierras and two enormous canyons on the Kings River.
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, Kitty Hawk Kitty Hawk
or Kittyhawk,
part of an offshore sandbar on Cape Hatteras, NE N.C., E of Albemarle Sound. Nearby is Kill Devil Hill, where the Wright brothers experimented successfully (1900–1903) with gliders and airplanes.
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, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Kobuk Valley National Park Kobuk Valley National Park
, 1,750,737 acres (709,048 hectares), NW Alaska. Located in rugged terrain N of the Arctic Circle, the park embraces the central valley of the Kobuk River, a centuries-old transportation route with many archaeological sites.
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, Mojave National Preserve Mojave National Preserve:
see Mojave Desert; National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Agate Fossil Beds National Monument Agate Fossil Beds National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Agua Fria National Monument Agua Fria National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Alamogordo Alamogordo
, city (1990 pop. 27,596), seat of Otero co., S N.Mex., near the Sacramento Mts.; inc. 1912. Holloman Air Force Base, home to U.S. stealth aircraft, is there, and the White Sands Missile Range is nearby.
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, Albemarle Sound Albemarle Sound,
large inland body of generally fresh water, c.55 mi (90 km) long, from 3 to 14 mi (4.8–22 km) wide, NE N.C. Shallow and tideless, the sound is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a long, narrow barrier island.
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, Casa Grande Casa Grande
, city (1990 pop. 19,082), Pinal co., S Ariz.; inc. 1915. It lies in an irrigated farm area near the Casa Grande Mts. The city was named after an excavated pueblo that is included in the nearby Casa Grande National Monument (see National Parks and Monuments, table).
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, Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument Castillo de San Marcos National Monument:
see Saint Augustine, Fla.; National Parks and Monuments, table.
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, cemetery cemetery,
name used by early Christians to designate a place for burying the dead. First applied in Christian burials in the Roman catacombs, the word cemetery came into general usage in the 15th cent.
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, Florida National Scenic Trail Florida National Scenic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Ford's Theatre National Historic Site Ford's Theatre National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Iditarod Iditarod
, abandoned town in SW Alaska, site of a 1908 gold rush, on the Iditarod River. The town site and river lie on the Iditarod National Historic Trail, 2,350 mi (3,781 km) long, a gold-seekers' route from Seward to Nome (see National Parks and Monuments, table), and
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, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Pullman National Monument Pullman National Monument:
see Pullman (1;) National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historic Park Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historic Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Puukohola Heiau National Historic Site Puukohola Heiau National Historic Site,
Hawaii: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Longfellow National Historic Site Longfellow National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Lookout, Cape Lookout, Cape,
point of a sandy reef (Core Banks), off E N.C., SW of Cape Hatteras. The reef guards the port entrance to Beaufort and Morehead City. A lighthouse on the point was built in 1859 and is included in Cape Lookout National Seashore
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, Louisiana Louisiana
, state in the S central United States. It is bounded by Mississippi, with the Mississippi River forming about half of the border (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Texas (W), and Arkansas (N). Facts and Figures

Area, 48,523 sq mi (125,675 sq km). Pop.
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, Lowell National Historical Park Lowell National Historical Park:
see Lowell; National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Lowell Lowell,
city (1990 pop. 103,439), a seat of Middlesex co., NE Mass., at the confluence of the Merrimack and Concord rivers; settled 1653, set off from Chelmsford 1826, inc. as a city 1836.
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, Fort Washington Park Fort Washington Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Big Cypress National Preserve Big Cypress National Preserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Big Hole National Battlefield Big Hole National Battlefield:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, U.S. Virgin Islands National Monument U.S. Virgin Islands National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Utah , state, United StatesUtah
, Rocky Mt. state of the W United States. It is bordered by Idaho and Wyoming (N), Colorado (E), Arizona (S), and Nevada (W), and touches New Mexico in the SE, at the Four Corners.
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, Bradenton Bradenton
, city (1990 pop. 43,779), seat of Manatee co., SW Fla., on Tampa Bay at the mouths of the Braden and Manatee rivers; inc. 1903. A popular winter resort and retirement center with excellent fishing in the rivers and bay, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico, it also ships
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, San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Brigham City Brigham City,
city (1990 pop. 15,644), seat of Box Elder co., N Utah; inc. 1869. It is the center of a large farm area served by the Ogden River project. Sheep, cattle, wheat, sugar beets, and orchard fruit are raised.
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, Edison National Historic Site Edison National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Hohokam Pima National Monument Hohokam Pima National Monument,
Ariz.: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Homestead National Monument of America Homestead National Monument of America:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Homestead Homestead.
1 City (1990 pop. 26,866), Dade co., SE Fla.; inc. 1913. A large Miami suburb with a growing Hispanic population, Homestead is a trade center for the redland district, known for its many varieties of citrus and other fruits and vegetables.
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, Honouliuli National Monument Honouliuli National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Hoover Dam Hoover Dam,
726 ft (221 m) high and 1,244 ft (379 m) long, on the Colorado River between Nev. and Ariz.; one of the world's largest dams. Built between 1931 and 1936 by the U.S.
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, horseshoe horseshoe,
narrow plate, commonly of iron or steel, shaped to fit a horse's hoof and attached to the hoof by nailing it to the inner edge of the horny wall of the hoof. Horseshoes vary from the light plate worn by race-horses to the heavy shoe with sharp pointed wedges, or
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, Horseshoe Bend Horseshoe Bend,
a turn on the Tallapoosa River, near Dadeville, E central Ala., site of a battle on Mar. 27, 1814, in which the Creeks, led by chief William Weatherford, were significantly defeated by a militia under the command of Andrew Jackson.
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, Hot Springs National Park Hot Springs National Park,
5,549 acres (2,247 hectares), W central Ark.; est. 1921; nearly surrounded by the city of Hot Springs. Visited by Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto in 1541, the springs, long used by Native Americans for medicinal purposes, became a Federal Reservation
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, Hovenweep National Monument Hovenweep National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Quincy Quincy.
1 City (1990 pop. 39,681), seat of Adams co., W Ill., on a bluff above the Mississippi; inc. 1839. It is a trade, industrial (steel parts), and distribution center in a grain and livestock area. The city and county were named for John Quincy Adams.
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, Rainbow Bridge National Monument Rainbow Bridge National Monument,
160 acres (65 hectares), S Utah; est. 1910. Rainbow Bridge, the largest natural bridge in the world, is a symmetrical, pink, sandstone arch, 309 ft (94 m) high, 33 ft (10 m) wide, with a 278-ft (85-m) span.
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, Thomas Stone National Historic Site Thomas Stone National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Ohio , state, United StatesOhio,
midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania (NE), West Virginia (SE) and Kentucky (S) across the Ohio River, Indiana (W), and Michigan and Lake Erie (N).
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, Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Natchez National Historical Park Natchez National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Natchez Trace Parkway Natchez Trace Parkway:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Natchez Trace Natchez Trace,
road, from Natchez, Miss., to Nashville, Tenn., of great commercial and military importance from the 1780s to the 1830s. It grew from a series of Native American trails used in the 18th cent. by the French, English, and Spanish.
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, National Capital Parks National Capital Parks:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, National Mall National Mall:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, National Park of American Samoa National Park of American Samoa:
see American Samoa; National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, national parks and monuments national parks and monuments.
The National Park Service, a bureau of the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, was established in 1916 to oversee the administration of 40 national parks and monuments under the charge of the department.
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, Natural Bridges National Monument Natural Bridges National Monument,
7,636 acres (3,093 hectares), SE Utah; est. 1908. Located in an area of colored cliffs and box canyons, the monument contains three huge natural sandstone bridges: Owachomo (also called Rock Mound), 106 ft (32 m) high with a span of 180 ft (55
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, Navajo National Monument Navajo National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Timpanogos Cave National Monument Timpanogos Cave National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Fort Union National Monument Fort Union National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Bering Strait Bering Strait,
c.55 mi (90 km) wide, between extreme NE Asia and extreme NW North America, connecting the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea. It is usually completely frozen over from October to June. The Diomede Islands are in the strait.
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, Big Bend National Park Big Bend National Park,
801,163 acres (324,471 hectares), W Tex.; authorized 1935, est. 1944. It is a triangle formed where the Rio Grande runs southeast then northeast in a big bend along the U.S.-Mexico border, notably through deep canyons such as the Santa Elena.
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, Bighorn , river, United StatesBighorn,
river, 461 mi (741 km) long, formed in W central Wyo. by the confluence of the Wind and Pop Agie rivers and flowing north to join the Yellowstone River in S Mont.
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, bighorn , in zoologybighorn
or Rocky Mountain sheep,
wild sheep, Ovis canadensis, of W North America, formerly plentiful in mountains from SW Canada to N Mexico. Indiscriminate hunting, disease, and scarcity of food enormously reduced its numbers by the mid-20th cent.
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, Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Custer Battlefield National Monument Custer Battlefield National Monument:
see Little Bighorn, river; Little Bighorn National Battlefield under the National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Cuyahoga Valley National Park Cuyahoga Valley National Park
, 32,950 acres (13,334 hectares), in the Cuyahoga River valley between Akron and Cleveland, NE Ohio; est. as a national recreation area 1974, designated a national park 2000.
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, Friendship Hill National Historic Site Friendship Hill National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Gaffney Gaffney,
city (1990 pop. 13,145), seat of Cherokee co., NW S.C., near the N.C. line, in a cotton, grain, and peach region; settled in the early 1800s, inc. 1873. Textiles and clothing are its major products; the city also has a large peach-packing plant and a variety of light
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, Ironwood Forest National Monument Ironwood Forest National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Isle Royale National Park Isle Royale National Park
, 571,790 acres (231,575 hectares), comprising about 200 islands, in Lake Superior, NW Mich.; est. 1940. Isle Royale, 210 sq mi (544 sq km), is the largest island in Lake Superior; Greenstone Ridge extends along its entire length.
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, Redding Redding,
city (1990 pop. 66,462), seat of Shasta co., N central Calif., on the Sacramento River; inc. 1872. A principal tourist center for a mountain and lake region, it also has lumbering, food-processing, and diverse manufacturing. Redding is one of the fastest-growing U.S.
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, Redwood National Park Redwood National Park,
112,430 acres (45,518 hectares), along the Pacific coast, NW Calif.; est. 1968. Backed by coastal bluffs, 40 mi (64 km) of beach, lagoon, and rocky coast are preserved in their natural state; seals, sea lions, and birds live on offshore rocks.
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, Texas Texas
, largest state in the coterminous United States. It is located in the south-central part of the country and is bounded by Oklahoma, across the Red River except in the Texas panhandle (N); Arkansas (NE); Louisiana, across the Sabine River (E); the Gulf of Mexico (SE);
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, Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Theodore Roosevelt National Park Theodore Roosevelt National Park,
70,447 acres (28,531 hectares), W N.Dak., in the Badlands and on the Little Missouri River; est. 1947. There are three units—the North Unit, the Elkhorn Ranch Unit, and the South Unit.
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, United States United States,
officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and in area. It consists of 50 states and a federal district.
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, Prince William Forest Park Prince William Forest Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark National Park and Preserve,
S Alaska. Located across Cook Inlet from Anchorage, the park (2,619,733 acres/1,060,621 hectares) and adjacent preserve (1,410,325 acres/570,982 hectares) feature the jagged peaks of the Chigmit Mts; lakes Clark, Fishtrap, and Iliamna;
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, Lake Chelan National Recreation Area Lake Chelan National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, badlands badlands,
area of severe erosion, usually found in semiarid climates and characterized by countless gullies, steep ridges, and sparse vegetation. Badland topography is formed on poorly cemented sediments that have few deep-rooted plants because short, heavy showers sweep away
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, Baltimore Baltimore,
city (1990 pop. 736,014), N central Md., surrounded by but politically independent of Baltimore co., on the Patapsco River estuary, an arm of Chesapeake Bay; inc. 1745.
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, Bandelier National Monument Bandelier National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Colorado National Monument Colorado National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Colonial National Historical Park Colonial National Historical Park,
9,350 acres (3,785 hectares), SE Va., mainly on the peninsula between the York and James rivers; created 1930 as Colonial National Monument, renamed 1936.
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, Colorado River storage project Colorado River storage project,
a multipurpose plan, undertaken by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1956, to control the flow of the upper Colorado and its tributaries and to aid in the development of the rugged, remote upper Colorado River basin; includes parts of Wyo.
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, Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Hyde Park , town, United StatesHyde Park,
town (1990 pop. 21,230), Dutchess co., SE N.Y., on the Hudson River; settled c.1740. It is famous as the site of the Roosevelt estate, where President Franklin D. Roosevelt was born and is buried.
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, Richmond , cities, United StatesRichmond.
1 City (1990 pop. 87,425), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on San Pablo Bay, an inlet of San Francisco Bay; inc. 1905. It is a deepwater commercial port and an industrial center with oil refineries and railroad repair shops.
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, Rio Grande , river, United States and MexicoRio Grande
, river, c.1,885 mi (3,000 km) long, rising in SW Colo. in the San Juan Mts. and flowing south through the middle of N.Mex., past Albuquerque, then coursing generally southeast as the border between Texas and Mexico, making a big bend (see Big Bend National Park), and
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, Roanoke Island Roanoke Island,
12 mi (19 km) long and 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, NE N.C., off the Atlantic coast between Croatan (W) and Roanoke (E) sounds in the Outer Banks. Manteo is the chief town, and tourism and fishing are the principal industries.
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, Rock Creek Park Rock Creek Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Tonto National Monument Tonto National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Trail of Tears National Historic Trail Trail of Tears National Historic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Lewis and Clark expedition Lewis and Clark expedition,
1803–6, U.S. expedition that explored the territory of the Louisiana Purchase and the country beyond as far as the Pacific Ocean. Purpose
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, Little Bighorn Little Bighorn,
river, c.90 mi (145 km) long, rising in the Bighorn Mts., N Wyo., and flowing north to join the Bighorn River in S Mont. On June 25–26, 1876, Sioux and Cheyenne warriors defeated the forces of Col. George Custer in the Little Bighorn valley in Montana.
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, Little River Canyon National Preserve Little River Canyon National Preserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Little Rock Central High School National Historical Site Little Rock Central High School National Historical Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Richmond National Battlefield Park Richmond National Battlefield Park:
see Richmond, Va.; National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Virginia , state, United StatesVirginia,
state of the S Middle-Atlantic United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), North Carolina and Tennessee (S), Kentucky and West Virginia (W), and Maryland and the District of Columbia, largely across the Potomac River (N and NE).
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, Petersburg National Battlefield Petersburg National Battlefield:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site,
Mont.: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, El Malpais National Monument El Malpais National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Capulin Volcano National Monument Capulin Volcano National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans.,
case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954. Linda Brown was denied admission to her local elementary school in Topeka because she was black.
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, Bryce Canyon National Park Bryce Canyon National Park,
35,835 acres (14,513 hectares), SW Utah; est. 1924. The Pink Cliffs of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, c.2,000 ft (610 m) high, were formed by water, frost, and wind action on alternate strata of softer and harder limestone; the result is colorful and unique
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, Grant's Tomb Grant's Tomb:
see General Grant National Memorial under National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Buck Island Reef National Monument Buck Island Reef National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Buffalo , city, United StatesBuffalo,
city (1990 pop. 328,123), seat of Erie co., W N.Y., on Lake Erie and the Niagara and Buffalo rivers; inc. 1832. With more than 37 mi (60 km) of waterfront, it is a major commercial and industrial port and railroad hub.
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, buffalo , in zoologybuffalo,
name commonly applied to the American bison but correctly restricted to certain related African and Asian mammals of the cattle family. The water buffalo, or Indian buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, is found in S Asia.
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, Dry Tortugas Dry Tortugas
, island group in the Gulf of Mexico, off S Fla., 60 mi (97 km) W of Key West. Named by the Spanish explorer Ponce de León in 1513, the islands later became a pirate base. They are famous for their bird and marine life. Loggerhead Key is the largest island.
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, Hawaii , island, United StatesHawaii,
island (1990 pop. 120,217), 4,037 sq mi (10,456 sq km), largest and southernmost island of the state of Hawaii and coextensive with Hawaii co.; known as the Big Island.
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, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Hawaii Volcanoes National Park,
209,695 acres (84,926 hectares), on Hawaii island, Hawaii; est. 1916. The park contains two of the most active volcanoes in the world—Kilauea with its fire pit, called Halemaumau, and Mauna Loa with the active Mokuaweoweo crater on its
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, Oregon Trail Oregon Trail,
overland emigrant route in the United States from the Missouri River to the Columbia River country (all of which was then called Oregon). The pioneers by wagon train did not, however, follow any single narrow route.
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, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Sagamore Hill National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Saguaro National Park Saguaro National Park,
91,443 acres (37,021 hectares), SE Ariz. Contained within the desert park are many examples of the saguaro cactus (Cereus giganteus), a monumentally proportioned, now rare species whose blossom is Arizona's state flower.
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, Saint Croix Island International Historic Site Saint Croix Island International Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Saint Augustine Saint Augustine
, city (1990 pop. 11,692), seat of St. Johns co., NE Fla.; inc. 1824. Located on a peninsula between the Matanzas and San Sebastian rivers, it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by Anastasia Island; the Intracoastal Waterway passes through the city. St.
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, Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Tumacacori National Historical Park Tumacacori National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Tupelo National Battlefield Tupelo National Battlefield:
see Tupelo, Miss.; National Parks and Monuments (table).
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, Tupelo , city, United StatesTupelo
, city (1990 pop. 30,685), seat of Lee co., NE Miss.; founded 1859, inc. 1870. It is the trade, processing, and shipping center for a cotton, grain, dairying, and livestock area. Once important for timber, the city is named after the tupelo, or black gum, tree.
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, Tuskegee Tuskegee
, city (1990 pop. 12,257), seat of Macon co., SE Ala., in a cotton, corn, and dairy region; settled before 1763, inc. 1843. It has gristmills and plants that make cottonseed oil and fertilizer. A number of antebellum houses remain, and nearby is a national forest.
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, Tuzigoot National Monument Tuzigoot National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Niobrara Niobrara
, river, c.430 mi (690 km) long, rising in the High Plains, E Wyo., and flowing E across N Nebraska to the Missouri River on Nebraska's northeast border. The Mirage Flats irrigation project uses water impounded by Box Butte Dam (completed 1946).
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, Noatak National Preserve Noatak National Preserve,
6,569,904 acres (2,660,811 hectares), N Alaska. The preserve is the largest mountain-ringed river basin in the United States that is still virtually unaffected by human activities.
..... Click the link for more information.
, North Cascades National Park North Cascades National Park,
504,781 acres (204,436 hectares), N Washington. Located in the Cascade Range, the park has outstanding alpine scenery, including high jagged peaks, glaciers, icefalls, hanging valleys, and mountain lakes in high glacial cirques.
..... Click the link for more information.
, North Country National Scenic Trail North Country National Scenic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mead, Lake Mead, Lake,
247 sq mi (640 sq km), on the Nev.-Ariz. border, formed by Hoover Dam across the Colorado River. The lake is 115 mi (185 km) long, from 1 to 8 mi (1.6–12.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Medford Medford.
1 City (1990 pop. 57,407), Middlesex co., E Mass., a residential and industrial suburb of Boston, on the Mystic River; settled 1630, inc. as a city 1892. Wax, paper, clothing, and furniture are among its products.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mesa Verde National Park Mesa Verde National Park
, 52,122 acres (21,109 hectares), SW Colorado; est. 1906. It includes the most notable and best-preserved cliff dwellings (see cliff dwellers) and relics in the United States, covering four archaeological periods. There are museums and a library.
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, Bisbee Bisbee
, city (1990 pop. 6,288), seat of Cochise co., SE Ariz., near the Mexican border; inc. 1900. It was formerly a great copper-producing center, but mining has declined significantly. After the rich copper deposits were discovered (c.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Biscayne Bay Biscayne Bay
, shallow, narrow inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, c.40 mi (60 km) long, SE Fla. Famous resort areas, including Miami and Miami Beach, are on the NW and NE respectively. Tourism is the economic mainstay.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Bluestone National Scenic River Bluestone National Scenic River:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Blue Ridge Blue Ridge,
eastern range of the Appalachian Mts., extending south from S Pa. to N Ga.; highest mountains in the E United States. Mt. Mitchell, 6,684 ft (2,037 m) high, is the tallest peak. Beginning with a narrow ridge in the north, c.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lincoln Home National Historic Site Lincoln Home National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Davis Mountains Davis Mountains,
W Tex., SE of El Paso. Old Baldy, 8,382 ft (2,555 m), is the highest peak. Forested slopes, springs, and deep canyons attract tourists. On the summit of Mt. Locke, 6,791 ft (2,070 m) high, is the Univ. of Texas McDonald Observatory (est. 1939), with a 107-in.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Dayton Dayton,
city (1990 pop. 182,044), seat of Montgomery co., SW Ohio, on the Great Miami River where it is joined by the Stillwater River; inc. 1805. It is the trade center for a fertile farm area, but is best known for its involvement with industry, invention, and aviation.
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, Death Valley Death Valley,
SE Calif. and SW Nev., a deep, arid basin, 140 mi (225 km) long, bordered on the W by the Panamint Range and on the E by the Amargosa Range. In summer the valley has recorded some of the world's highest air temperatures (134°F;/56.
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, Delaware Water Gap Delaware Water Gap
, scenic gorge, 2 mi (3.2 km) long, cut by the Delaware River through Kittatinny Mt., on the N.J.–Pa. line; located in a mountain resort area around Stroudsburg, Pa. The gap, parts of wooded Kittatinny Mt., several islands, and c.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Denali National Park and Preserve Denali National Park and Preserve
, in the Alaska Range, S central Alaska; comprising Denali National Park (4,740,912 acres/1,919,398 hectares), est. as Mt. McKinley National Park 1917, and Denali National Preserve (1,399,078 acres/566,428 hectares), est.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Minute Man National Historical Park Minute Man National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gulf Islands National Seashore Gulf Islands National Seashore:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Guilford Courthouse, battle of Guilford Courthouse, battle of,
in the Carolina campaign of the American Revolution, fought Mar. 15, 1781. The site is included in a national military park near Greensboro, N.C. (see National Parks and Monuments, table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hagerstown Hagerstown
, city (1990 pop. 35,445), seat of Washington co., NW Md., on Antietam Creek near its junction with the Potomac River, in the fertile Cumberland Valley; inc. 1791. The city is a shipping and processing center for agricultural products.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Haleakala National Park Haleakala National Park
, 29,824 acres (12,074 hectares), on Maui island, Hawaii. Haleakala volcano, 10,023 ft (3,055 m) high, has been dormant since the mid-1700s. Its crater, 2,720 ft (829 m) deep with an area of 19 sq mi (49 sq km), is one of the largest in the world.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania
, one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bordered by New Jersey, across the Delaware River (E), Delaware (SE), Maryland (S), West Virginia (SW), Ohio (W), and Lake Erie and New York (N).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pensacola Bay Pensacola Bay,
inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, 13 mi (21 km) long and c.2.5 mi (4 km) wide, NW Fla.; entered through a narrow channel between Santa Rosa Island and the mainland. The Escambia River flows into the bay from the north, near the city of Pensacola.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Sonoran Desert National Monument Sonoran Desert National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, South Carolina South Carolina,
state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and, across the Savannah River, Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures

Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2010) 4,625,364, a 15.
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, South Dakota South Dakota
, state in the N central United States. It is bordered by North Dakota (N), Minnesota and Iowa (E), Nebraska (S), and Wyoming and Montana (W). Facts and Figures

Area, 77,047 sq mi (199,552 sq km). Pop. (2010) 814,180, a 7.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Channel Islands National Park Channel Islands National Park:
see Channel Islands, California; National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Monocacy National Battlefield Monocacy National Battlefield:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Montana Montana
, Rocky Mt. state in the NW United States. It is bounded by North Dakota and South Dakota (E), Wyoming (S), Idaho (W), and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan (N).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Montezuma Castle National Monument Montezuma Castle National Monument,
858 acres (347 hectares), central Ariz.; est. 1906. Montezuma Castle, built c.1250, is a 5-story, 20-room dwelling perched high in the cavity of a cliff. It was named by early settlers who believed it had been built by the Aztecs.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Moores Creek National Battlefield Moores Creek National Battlefield,
88 acres (36 hectares), SE N.C.; est. 1926. The patriot victory over the Loyalists at Moores Creek Bridge on Feb. 27, 1776, prevented the intended British invasion of North Carolina and spurred revolutionary sentiment in the South; the battle
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Morristown Morristown.
1 Town (1990 pop. 16,189), seat of Morris co., N N.J., on the Whippany River; settled c.1710, inc. 1865. Although chiefly residential, it has diverse manufactures, including electronic products, health and beauty aids, auto parts, and chemicals.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Bowie National Historic Site Fort Bowie National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Georgia , state, United StatesGeorgia
, state in the SE United States, the last of the Thirteen Colonies to be founded. It is bordered by Florida (S), Alabama (W), Tennessee and North Carolina (N), and South Carolina (across the Savannah River) and the Atlantic Ocean (E).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lake Mead National Recreation Area Lake Mead National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area Lake Meredith National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Alexander City Alexander City,
city (1990 pop. 14,917), Tallapoosa co., E central Ala., in a piedmont farm area; inc. 1874. Nearby Martin Dam supplies power for the city's textile mills; the dam also has created Lake Martin, a superb recreational area.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chaco Culture National Historical Park Chaco Culture National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chamizal National Memorial Chamizal National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Channel Islands , CaliforniaChannel Islands
or Santa Barbara Islands
, chain of eight rugged islands and many islets, extending c.150 mi (240 km) along the S Calif. coast from Point Conception to San Diego.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Charles Pinckney National Historic Site Charles Pinckney National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Eisenhower National Historic Site Eisenhower National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Charlestown , former city, United StatesCharlestown,
former city, now part of Boston, Middlesex co., E Mass., on Boston Harbor, between the Mystic and the Charles rivers; settled 1629, included in Boston 1874. The oldest part of Boston, it was the site of the U.S. navy yard (est. 1801, closed 1973) where the U.S.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chattanooga Chattanooga
, city (1990 pop. 152,466), seat of Hamilton co., E Tenn., on both sides of the Tennessee River near the Georgia line; inc. 1839. It is an important industrial and marketing center.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hamilton Grange National Memorial Hamilton Grange National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Kings Mountain National Military Park Kings Mountain National Military Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Governors Island Governors Island,
173 acres (70 hectares), in Upper New York Bay, S of Manhattan island, SE N.Y. Bought from the Native Americans by the Dutch in 1637, it was the site of an early New Netherlands settlement (1624).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument:
see Little Bighorn, river; National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Grand Canyon Grand Canyon,
great gorge of the Colorado River, one of the natural wonders of the world; c.1 mi (1.6 km) deep, from 4 to 18 mi (6.4–29 km) wide, and 217 mi (349 km) long, NW Ariz.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Grand Teton National Park Grand Teton National Park
, 309,993 acres (125,503 hectares), NW Wyo.; est. 1929. The park, which includes Jackson Lake and part of Jackson Hole, embraces the most scenic portion of the glaciated, snow-covered Teton Range; Grand Teton (13,766 ft/4,196 m) is the highest peak.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park Jean Lafitte National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Great Basin Great Basin,
semiarid, N section of the Basin and Range province, the intermontane plateau region of W United States and N Mexico. Lying mostly in Nevada and extending into California, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah, it is bordered by the Sierra Nevada on the west, the Columbia Plateau
..... Click the link for more information.
, Petroglyph National Monument Petroglyph National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Petrified Forest National Park Petrified Forest National Park,
93,533 acres (37,881 hectares), E Ariz.; est. as a national monument 1906, designated a national park 1962. A part of the Painted Desert, it contains the largest known display of petrified wood in the world.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Shiloh National Military Park Shiloh National Military Park:
see Shiloh, battle of; National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Independence National Historical Park Independence National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site,
117 acres (47 hectares), central Ky., near Hodgenville; est. 1916. Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in this area on Feb. 12, 1809.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Acadia National Park Acadia National Park,
48,419 acres (19,603 hectares), SE Maine, on the Atlantic coast; est. as Sieur de Monts National Monument 1916, designated Lafayette National Park 1919, renamed 1929.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Adams National Historical Park Adams National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, California National Historic Trail California National Historic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, California Coastal National Monument California Coastal National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Camp David Camp David,
U.S. presidential retreat, located in Catoctin Mountain Park (see National Parks and Monuments, table), in NW Md. The Camp David accords, the terms of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, were established (1978) at this site; other negotiations and summits also
..... Click the link for more information.
, Canadian Canadian
, river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma. In the mid-1800s, the Canadian River valley was followed by pioneers going West along the Fort Smith–Santa Fe Trail.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cane River Creole National Historical Park and Heritage Area Cane River Creole National Historical Park and Heritage Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Canyon de Chelly National Monument
[De Chelly, Sp. corruption of Navajo Tsegi = rock canyon], 83,840 acres (33,955 hectares), NE Ariz.; est. 1931. The area contains the ruins of several hundred prehistoric Native American villages, most of them built A.D. 350–1300.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Caroline Fort Caroline,
settlement near the mouth of the St. Johns River, NE Fla.; est. 1564 by French Huguenots under René de Laudonnière. A Spanish force led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés attacked the fort in 1565, killed most of the colonists, and renamed the
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Donelson Fort Donelson
, Confederate fortification in the Civil War, on the Cumberland River at Dover, Tenn., commanding the river approach to Nashville, Tenn. After capturing Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River (Feb. 6, 1862), General Ulysses S. Grant, on Feb.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Frederica National Monument Fort Frederica National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Larned National Historic Site Fort Larned National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Laramie National Historic Site Fort Laramie National Historic Site
, 833 acres (337 hectares), SE Wyo.; est. 1938. Founded in 1834 as a fur-trading post by William Sublette and Robert Campbell, it was bought by the American Fur Company in 1836. In 1849 it became a U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort McHenry Fort McHenry,
former U.S. military post in Baltimore harbor; built 1794–1805. In the War of 1812 it was bombarded (Sept. 13–14, 1814) by a British fleet under Sir Alexander Cochrane, but the fort, commanded by Maj. George Armistead, resisted the attack.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Moultrie Fort Moultrie
, on Sullivans Island at the entrance to the harbor of Charleston, S.C.; originally called Fort Sullivan. Constructed by Col. William Moultrie, the fort was renamed for him after he repulsed a British naval attack in June, 1776, in one of the most decisive battles
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Necessity Fort Necessity,
entrenched camp built in July, 1754, by George Washington and his Virginia militia at Great Meadows (near the present Uniontown, Pa.). He retired there when he learned that the British fort at the forks of the Ohio (the site of Pittsburgh) had been captured (and
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Point National Historic Site Fort Point National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Pulaski Fort Pulaski
, brick fortification on Cockspur Island, SE Ga., at the mouth of the Savannah River; built 1829–47 by the U.S. government and named for Casimir Pulaski. The fort was seized by Georgia troops during the Civil War in Jan.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Smith , city, United StatesFort Smith,
city (1990 pop. 72,798), seat of Sebastian co., NW Ark., at the Okla. line where the Arkansas and Poteau rivers join; inc. 1842. It is the rail, trade, and industrial center of a farm and livestock area.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Stanwix Fort Stanwix,
colonial outpost on the site of Rome, N.Y., controlling a principal route from the Hudson River to Lake Ontario. Originally a French trading center, it was rebuilt by the English general John Stanwix in 1758.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Sumter Fort Sumter,
fortification, built 1829–60, on a shoal at the entrance to the harbor of Charleston, S.C., and named for Gen. Thomas Sumter; scene of the opening engagement of the Civil War. Upon passing the Ordinance of Secession (Dec.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Union Fort Union,
trading post of the American Fur Company, erected in 1828 near the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers, on the Mont.-N.Dak. line; it controlled converging routes of travel from the Rocky Mts. For c.40 years it was the most important post in the U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fossil Butte National Monument Fossil Butte National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fredericksburg Fredericksburg.
1 Town (1990 pop. 6,934), Gillespie co., S central Texas, in the Texas Hill Country near the Pedernales River; inc. 1928. Located in an agricultural (cattle, peaches, wine, lavender) and quarrying (granite, sand, gravel) region, the city produces animal
..... Click the link for more information.
, Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Theodore Roosevelt Island Theodore Roosevelt Island:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, West Virginia West Virginia,
E central state of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania and Maryland (N, NE), Virginia (E and S), Kentucky (W) and, across the Ohio River, Ohio (NW). Facts and Figures

Area, 24,181 sq mi (62,629 sq km). Pop.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Obed Wild and Scenic River Obed Wild and Scenic River:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ninety Six National Historic Site Ninety Six National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Katmai National Park and Preserve Katmai National Park and Preserve
, at the northern end of the Alaska Peninsula on Shelikof Strait, S Alaska, comprising Katmai National Park (3,674,530 acres/1,487,664 hectares) and an adjoining preserve (418,699 acres/169,514 hectares).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Stones River National Battlefield Stones River National Battlefield:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Stonewall National Monument Stonewall National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chiricahua National Monument Chiricahua National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Buffalo National River Buffalo National River,
Ark.: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Catoctin Mountain Park Catoctin Mountain Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mount Rushmore National Memorial Mount Rushmore National Memorial,
1,278 acres (518 hectares), SW S.Dak., in the Black Hills; est. 1925, dedicated 1927. There, carved on the face of the mountain and visible for 60 mi (97 km), are the enormous (60 ft/18.3 m high) heads of four U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mount Rainier National Park Mount Rainier National Park
, 235,625 acres (95,395 hectares), SW Wash., in the Cascade Range; est. 1899. The area is dominated by Mt. Rainier, a volcanic peak 14,410 ft (4,392 m) high.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Muir Woods National Monument Muir Woods National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Murfreesboro Murfreesboro
, city (1990 pop. 44,922), seat of Rutherford co., central Tenn., on Stones River; inc. 1817. It is the processing center of a dairy, livestock, and farm area. Manufactures include appliance motors, packaged foods, boats, and outdoor furniture.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Matanzas National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument:
see Saint Augustine, Fla.; National Parks and Monuments, table.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Crater Lake National Park Crater Lake National Park,
183,224 acres (74,206 hectares), SW Oreg., in the Cascade Range; est. 1902. Crater Lake, 20 sq mi (52 sq km), lies in a huge pit that was created when the top of a prehistoric volcano was blown off by a violent eruption.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Craters of the Moon National Monument Craters of the Moon National Monument,
53,440 acres (21,636 hectares), S central Idaho; est. 1924. This region, composed of several closely grouped volcanoes, is suggestive of a telescopic view of the moon. Volcanic activity dating back c.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cumberland Gap Cumberland Gap,
natural passage through the Cumberland Mts., near the point where Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee meet. The gap was formed by the erosive action of a stream that once flowed there. It was explored and named in 1750 by Dr.
..... Click the link for more information.
, George Rogers Clark National Historical Park George Rogers Clark National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, George Washington Carver National Monument George Washington Carver National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, George Washington Memorial Parkway George Washington Memorial Parkway:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gettysburg Gettysburg
, borough (1990 pop. 7,025), seat of Adams co., S Pa.; inc. 1806. There is agriculture and the production of furniture and metal goods. Gettysburg was settled c.1780 and is named for Gen. James Gettys, to whom its site was granted (17th cent.) by William Penn.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gila Gila
, river, 630 mi (1,014 km) long, rising in the mountains of W N.Mex. and flowing W across Ariz. to the Colorado River at Yuma, Ariz.; the San Francisco River is its main tributary.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ozark National Scenic Riverways Ozark National Scenic Riverways,
80,786 acres (32,707 hectares), along the Current and Jacks Fork rivers, SE Mo.; authorized 1964 as the first national scenic river; est. 1972.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Saint Louis Saint Louis
, city (1990 pop. 396,685), independent and in no county, E Mo., on the Mississippi River below the mouth of the Missouri; inc. as a city 1822. St. Louis has long been a major industrial and transportation hub.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Salem Maritime National Historic Site Salem Maritime National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, San Antonio Missions National Historical Park San Antonio Missions National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, San Juan Islands San Juan Islands
, archipelago of 172 islands constituting San Juan co., NW Wash., E of Vancouver Island. The islands were visited and named c.1790 by Spanish explorers.
..... Click the link for more information.
, San Juan National Historic Site San Juan National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Valley Forge Valley Forge,
on the Schuylkill River, SE Pa., NW of Philadelphia. There, during the American Revolution, the main camp of the Continental Army was established (Dec., 1777–June, 1778) under the command of Gen. George Washington.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Vancouver , city, United StatesVancouver,
city (1990 pop. 46,380), seat of Clark co., SW Wash., on the Columbia River opposite Portland, Oreg., with which it is connected by bridges; inc. 1857. A rapidly growing suburb of Portland and an important deepwater port, it has an extensive shipping industry, many
..... Click the link for more information.
, Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Verde Verde
, river, c.190 mi (310 km) long, rising in central Ariz. and flowing S to the Salt River. The valley supported early Native American civilizations and is dotted with ruins, such as those at Tuzigoot National Monument (see National Parks and Monuments, table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Vermilion Cliffs National Monument Vermilion Cliffs National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Newberry National Volcanic Monument Newberry National Volcanic Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, New Mexico New Mexico,
state in the SW United States. At its northwestern corner are the so-called Four Corners, where Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah meet at right angles; New Mexico is also bordered by Oklahoma (NE), Texas (E, S), and Mexico (S).
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, New Orleans New Orleans
, city (2006 pop. 187,525), coextensive with Orleans parish, SE La., between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, 107 mi (172 km) by water from the river mouth; founded 1718 by the sieur de Bienville, inc. 1805.
..... Click the link for more information.
, New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Nicodemus National Historical Site Nicodemus National Historical Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, New River Gorge National River New River Gorge National River:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, New York , state, United StatesNew York,
Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of Ontario (NW), and the province of Quebec (N).
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, New York , city, United StatesNew York,
city (1990 pop. 7,322,564), land area 304.8 sq mi (789.4 sq km), SE N.Y., largest city in the United States and one of the largest in the world, on New York Bay at the mouth of the Hudson River.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Nez Percé National Historical Park Nez Percé National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Nez Percé National Historic Trail Nez Percé National Historic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Canaveral National Seashore Canaveral National Seashore:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Scott National Historic Site Fort Scott National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Battery, the Battery, the,
park, 21 acres (8.5 hectares), southern tip of Manhattan island, New York City; site of former Dutch and English fortifications. Castle Clinton, a fort built in 1808 for the defense of New York harbor, was ceded to the city in 1823 and renamed Castle Garden.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Beatrice Beatrice
, city (1990 pop. 12,354), seat of Gage co., SE Nebr., on the Big Blue River; inc. as a city 1873. On the old Oregon Trail, it is the trading and industrial center for a grain, dairy, and livestock area.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Continental Divide Continental Divide,
the "backbone" of a continent. In North America, from N Alaska to New Mexico, it moves along the crest of the Rocky Mts., which separates streams with outlets to the west of the divide from those with outlets to the east.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cowpens National Battlefield Cowpens National Battlefield:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Federal Hall National Memorial Federal Hall National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fire Island Fire Island,
barrier beach, 32 mi (52 km) long, off the south shore of Long Island, SE N.Y., separating Great South Bay from the Atlantic Ocean. Robert Moses State Park is at its west end.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Jacksonville Jacksonville.
1 City (1990 pop. 29,101), Pulaski co., central Ark., inc. 1941. The city has varied industries, including printing and publishing and the manufacture of electronic equipment, ordnance, and plastic and metal products.
..... Click the link for more information.
, James A. Garfield National Historic Site James A. Garfield National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Jamestown , cities, United StatesJamestown.
1 City (1990 pop. 34,681), Chautauqua co., W N.Y., on Chautauqua Lake; founded c.1806, inc. as a city 1886. It is the business and financial center of a dairy, livestock, and vineyard area.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Rocky Mountains Rocky Mountains,
major mountain system of W North America and easternmost belt of the North American cordillera, extending more than 3,000 mi (4,800 km) from central N.Mex. to NW Alaska; Mt. Elbert (14,431 ft/4,399 m) in Colorado is the highest peak.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Roger Williams National Memorial Roger Williams National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ross Lake National Recreation Area Ross Lake National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, USS Arizona Memorial USS Arizona Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth Cave National Park,
52,830 acres (21,396 hectares), central Kentucky, authorized 1926, est. 1941. Located in a hilly, forested region, it offers numerous outdoor activities. It is the site of Mammoth Cave, the longest recorded cave system in the world.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Manassas Manassas
, town (1990 pop. 27,957), seat of Prince William co., N Va., in a farm area; inc. 1873, rechartered 1938. Manassas has become a growing residential town with retail shopping centers; its development has been spurred as the Washington, D.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Atlanta Atlanta
, city (1990 pop. 394,017), state capital and seat of Fulton co., NW Ga., on the Chattahoochee R. and Peachtree Creek, near the Appalachian foothills; inc. 1847. It is Georgia's largest city and one of the leading cities of the South.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Aztec Ruins National Monument Aztec Ruins National Monument,
318 acres (129 hectares), NW N.Mex., near Farmington; est. 1923. Ruins of a 12th-century Pueblo town contain interesting kivas, one of which has been completely restored. Pueblo culture reached a high level of achievement in this area.
..... Click the link for more information.
, City of Rocks National Reserve City of Rocks National Reserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Clara Barton National Historic Site Clara Barton National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Everglades Everglades,
marshy, low-lying subtropical savanna area, c.4,000 sq mi (10,000 sq km), S Fla., extending from Lake Okeechobee S to Florida Bay. Characterized by water, sawgrass, hammocks (islandlike masses of vegetation), palms, pine and mangrove forests, and solidly packed black
..... Click the link for more information.
, Korean War Veterans Memorial Korean War Veterans Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Father Marquette National Memorial Father Marquette National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ocmulgee National Monument Ocmulgee National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ocmulgee Ocmulgee
, river, c.255 mi (410 km) long, formed SE of Atlanta, NW Ga., by the confluence of the Yellow, South, and Alcovy rivers. It flows SE past Macon to join the Oconee River and form the Altamaha River near Lumber City.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Oklahoma City Oklahoma City
(1990 pop. 444,719), state capital, and seat of Oklahoma co., central Okla., on the North Canadian River; inc. 1890. The state's largest city, it is an important livestock market, a wholesale, distribution, industrial, and financial center, and a farm trade and
..... Click the link for more information.
, Olympic Mountains Olympic Mountains,
highest part of the Coast Ranges, on the Olympic Peninsula, NW Wash. Mt. Olympus (7,965 ft/2,427 m) is the highest point in the mountains, which are composed mainly of sedimentary rock.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Scotts Bluff National Monument Scotts Bluff National Monument:
see Scottsbluff; National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Scottsbluff Scottsbluff
, city (1990 pop. 13,711), Scotts Bluff co., W Nebr., on the North Platte River near the Wyo. line; inc. 1900. It is the market, distribution, and processing point of an irrigated farm region. Besides livestock and agriculture, there is some light industry.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Scranton Scranton,
city (1990 pop. 81,805), seat of Lackawanna co., NE Pa., in a mountain region, on the Lackawanna River; settled in the 1700s, inc. 1866. Named for George W. Scranton, it is a commercial and industrial center of the surrounding anthracite coal region of NE Pennsylvania.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Sea Islands Sea Islands,
chain of more than 100 low islands off the Atlantic coast of S.C., Ga., and N Fla., extending from the Santee River to the St. Johns River. The ocean side of the islands is generally sandy; the side facing the mainland is marshy.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Vicksburg Vicksburg,
city (1990 pop. 20,908), seat of Warren co., W Miss., on bluffs above the Mississippi River at the mouth of the Yazoo; inc. 1825. An important port, it is the commercial, processing, and shipping center for a cotton, timber, and livestock area.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Virgin Islands National Park Virgin Islands National Park,
14,689 acres (5,949 hectares), St. John, Virgin Islands; est. 1956. The park, with beaches, coves, and headlands, is rich in tropical-plant, animal, and marine life. Bordeaux Mt., 1,277 ft (389 m) high, is the highest point on the island.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Visalia Visalia
, city (1990 pop. 75,636), seat of Tulare co., S central Calif., in the San Joaquin Valley (see under San Joaquin); founded 1852, inc. 1874. Its economy is centered around agriculture (cotton, grapes, olives, citrus, and nursery products) and livestock (cattle, hogs, and
..... Click the link for more information.
, Voyageurs National Park Voyageurs National Park,
218,200 acres (88,340 hectares), N Minnesota. The park contains forested lake country noted for its sports fishing and glacial features. In the 18th cent. the region was a trade route for French-Canadian voyageurs (fur traders).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument Grand Canyon–Parashant National Monument:
see Grand Canyon; National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Grand Portage National Monument Grand Portage National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Boston African American National Historic Site Boston African American National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Coronado National Memorial Coronado National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Alagnak Wild River Alagnak Wild River:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Big Thicket National Preserve Big Thicket National Preserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cedar Breaks National Monument Cedar Breaks National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Oregon , state, United StatesOregon
, state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It is bordered by Washington, largely across the Columbia River (N), Idaho, partially across the Snake River (E), Nevada and California (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Oregon Caves National Monument Oregon Caves National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Giant Sequoia National Monument Giant Sequoia National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, De Soto National Memorial De Soto National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Curecanti National Recreation Area Curecanti National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Effigy Mounds National Monument Effigy Mounds National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, El Morro National Monument El Morro National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cabrillo National Monument Cabrillo National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ice Age National Scenic Trail Ice Age National Scenic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hampton National Historic Site Hampton National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hanford Reach National Monument Hanford Reach National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Harpers Ferry Harpers Ferry,
town (1990 pop. 308), Jefferson co., easternmost W Va., at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers; inc. 1763. The town is a tourist attraction, known for its history and its scenic beauty. John Brown's seizure of the U.S. arsenal there on Oct.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Harry S. Truman National Historic Site Harry S. Truman National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hatteras, Cape Hatteras, Cape
, promontory on Hatteras Island, a low, sandy, barrier bar between the Atlantic Ocean and Pamlico Sound, E N.C. Called the Graveyard of the Atlantic, the cape experiences frequent storms that drive ships landward toward its dangerous shallow depths.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pea Ridge National Military Park Pea Ridge National Military Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Sequoia National Park Sequoia National Park,
402,510 acres (162,960 hectares), E central Calif.; est. 1890. In the park are 35 groves of giant sequoias, spectacular granite mountains, and deep canyons.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Shasta Dam Shasta Dam,
602 ft (183 m) high and 3,460 ft (1,055 m) long, on the Sacramento River, N Calif.; built 1938–45. One of the largest concrete dams in the world, it is a major unit in the Central Valley project.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Shenandoah National Park Shenandoah National Park,
198,081 acres (80,195 hectares), N Va., extending 80 mi (129 km) along the crest of the Blue Ridge. Authorized in 1926, it was fully established as a national park in 1935. Skyline Drive, a north-south highway, winds for 105 mi (169 km) through the park.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Weir Farm National Historic Site Weir Farm National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, West Orange West Orange,
town (1990 pop. 39,103), Essex co., NE N.J., a residential suburb of Newark; set off from Orange 1862, inc. 1900. "Glenmont," Thomas Edison's home in Llewellyn Park, and his laboratory (now a museum) are included in the Edison National Historic Site (see National
..... Click the link for more information.
, Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Minnesota , state, United StatesMinnesota
, upper midwestern state of the United States. It is bordered by Lake Superior and Wisconsin (E), Iowa (S), South Dakota and North Dakota (W), and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario (N).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mississippi , state, United StatesMississippi
, one of the Deep South states of the United States. It is bordered by Alabama (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Arkansas and Louisiana, with most of that border formed by the Mississippi River (W), and Tennessee (N).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Mississippi National River and Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Missouri , river, United StatesMissouri,
river, c.2,565 mi (4,130 km) long (including its Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock headstream), the longest river of the United States and the principal tributary of the Mississippi River.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Marsh-Billings National Historical Park Marsh-Billings National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Martin Van Buren National Historic Site Martin Van Buren National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Maryland Maryland
, one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bounded by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean (E), the District of Columbia (S), Virginia and West Virginia, largely across the Potomac River (S, W), and Pennsylvania (N).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Massachusetts Massachusetts
, most populous of the New England states of the NE United States. It is bordered by New York (W), Vermont and New Hampshire (N), the Atlantic Ocean (E, SE), and Rhode Island and Connecticut (S).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Antietam campaign Antietam campaign
, Sept., 1862, of the Civil War. After the second battle of Bull Run, Gen. Robert E. Lee crossed the Potomac to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania. At Frederick, Md., he divided (Sept.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Apostle Islands Apostle Islands,
group of more than 20 wooded islands, in Lake Superior, off N Wis. Madeline, 13 mi (21 km) long, is the largest island and has the group's only settlement, La Pointe.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Appomattox Appomattox
, town (1990 pop. 1,707), seat of Appomattox co., central Va.; inc. 1925. Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant at nearby Appomattox Courthouse on Apr. 9, 1865. After Gen.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Arches National Park Arches National Park,
76,519 acres (30,979 hectares), E Utah; est. as a national monument 1929, designated a national park 1971. Located in red-rock country and overlooking the gorge of the Colorado River, this area contains a vast and unusual array of natural rock formations.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Canyonlands National Park Canyonlands National Park,
337,598 acres (136,679 hectares), SE Utah; est. 1964. Located in a desert region, the park contains a maze of deep canyons and many unusual features carved by wind and water, including spires, pinnacles, and arches; surrounding mesas rise more than
..... Click the link for more information.
, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument Canyons of the Ancients National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Frederick Douglass Home National Memorial Frederick Douglass Home National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Capitol Reef National Park Capitol Reef National Park:
241,904 acres (97,971 hectares), S Utah. The park features a dome-shaped white rock, said to resemble the U.S. Capitol, and a maze of deep canyons, arches, and monoliths cut through a 100-mi (160-km) uplift, known as the Waterpocket Fold, that
..... Click the link for more information.
, Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Carlsbad Caverns National Park Carlsbad Caverns National Park,
46,766 acres (18,940 hectares), SE N.Mex., in the Guadalupe Mts.; designated a national park in 1930. These connecting limestone caves, with remarkable stalactite and stalagmite formations and huge chambers, began forming 60 million years ago as
..... Click the link for more information.
, Frederick Law Olmstead National Historic Site Frederick Law Olmstead National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Kalaupapa National Historical Park Kalaupapa National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Carrizo Plain National Monument Carrizo Plain National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Herbert Hoover National Historic Site Herbert Hoover National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve,
132.4 sq mi (343 sq km), in the San Luis Valley of S Colorado; est. as a national monument 1932, designated a national park 2004. Lying in an area of high desert between the San Juan and Sangre de Cristo mtns.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Great Smoky Mountains Great Smoky Mountains,
part of the Appalachian system, on the N.C.–Tenn. border; highest range E of the Mississippi and one of the oldest uplands on earth. The mountains are named for the smokelike haze that envelops them.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Greenbelt Greenbelt,
city (1990 pop. 21,096), Prince Georges co., W central Md., a residential suburb of Washington, D.C.; chartered 1937. Greenbelt was planned and built by the federal government as an experimental model community for families of modest income.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Greeneville Greeneville,
town (1990 pop. 13,532), seat of Greene co., NE Tenn., in a tobacco, dairy, and cattle area; founded 1783, inc. 1875. It is a leading tobacco market with plants that produce various light manufactures.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Green River Green River.
1 River, 370 mi (595 km) long, rising in central Ky. and flowing generally NW, through Mammoth Cave National Park, to the Ohio River near Evansville, Ind. Locks and dams make the Green River navigable upstream to the park.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Guadalupe Mountains National Park Guadalupe Mountains National Park
, 86,416 acres (34,998 hectares), W Tex. Located in the Guadalupe Mts., the park contains parts of the world's largest and most significant Permian limestone fossil reef.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pinnacles National Park Pinnacles National Park,
c.26,000 acres (10,500 hectares), in the Gabilan Mts. of the Coast Ranges, W central Calif.; est. as a national monument 1980, designated a national park 2013.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pipe Spring National Monument Pipe Spring National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pipestone National Monument Pipestone National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Piscataway Park Piscataway Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Point Reyes National Seashore Point Reyes National Seashore
, 71,068 acres (28,772 hectares), W Calif.; est. 1962. Included in the area are steep bluffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean, lagoons, and esteros enclosed by sand dunes, rolling hills, and forests.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Sitka National Historical Park Sitka National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Skagit Skagit
, river, c.150 mi (240 km) long, rising in the Cascade Range, British Columbia, and flowing SW through Wash. into Puget Sound. Gorge High Dam, Diablo Dam, and Ross Dam provide electricity for Seattle.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Whitman Mission National Historic Site Whitman Mission National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table); Whitman, Marcus.
..... Click the link for more information.
, White Sands White Sands,
uninhabited desert area, S central N.Mex. It is a center for U.S. military-weapons research and testing. On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded at Holloman Air Force Base (formerly Alamogordo Air Base).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Williamsburg Williamsburg,
historic city (1990 pop. 11,530), seat of James City co., SE Va., on a peninsula between the James and York rivers; settled 1632 as Middle Plantation, laid out and renamed 1699, inc. 1722.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wind Cave National Park Wind Cave National Park,
28,295 acres (11,459 hectares), in the Black Hills, SW S.Dak.; est. 1903. Wind Cave, discovered in 1881, was named for the strong air currents that blow alternately in and out of it depending on whether the atmospheric pressure is higher or lower than
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lewis and Clark National Historical Park Lewis and Clark National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Kenai Fjords National Park Kenai Fjords National Park,
669,983 acres (271,248 hectares), S Alaska. The park features the great Harding Icefield and its radiating glaciers, many of which descend to tidewater, and a magnificent series of fjords along the coast of Kenai Peninsula, with rain forest, sea
..... Click the link for more information.
, Keweenaw Keweenaw
, peninsula, 60 mi (97 km) long, projecting NE from the W Upper Peninsula, NW Mich., into Lake Superior. Portage Lake and a connecting ship canal cut across the middle of the peninsula, converting its upper portion into an island and creating an important waterway.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Clatsop National Memorial Fort Clatsop National Memorial,
now part of Lewis and Clark National Historical Park. See National Parks and Monuments (table)
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Davis National Historic Site Fort Davis National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table); Davis Mountains.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Delaware National Scenic River Delaware National Scenic River:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Amistad National Recreation Area Amistad National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Andrew Johnson National Historic Site Andrew Johnson National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve
, on the Alaska Peninsula, SW Alaska. Located in the Aleutian Range, the monument (137,176 acres/55,556 hectares) and surrounding preserve (465,603 acres/188,569 hectares) feature the Aniakchak volcano (4,420 ft/1,347 m high), which last
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chelan, Lake Chelan, Lake
, 55 mi (89 km) long and from 1 to 2 mi (1.6–3.2 km) wide, located in a deep narrow gorge in the Cascade Range, NW Wash.; third-deepest freshwater lake in the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Great Egg Harbor Scenic and Recreational River Great Egg Harbor Scenic and Recreational River:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Chesapeake and Ohio Canal,
former waterway, c.185 mi (300 km) long, from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Md., running along the north bank of the Potomac River. A successor to the Potomac Company's (1784–1828) navigation improvement project, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chicago Portage National Historic Site Chicago Portage National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Tennessee , state, United StatesTennessee
, state in the SE central United States. It is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia (N), North Carolina (E), Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi (S), and, across the Mississippi River, Arkansas and Missouri (W).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chillicothe Chillicothe
, city (1990 pop. 21,923), seat of Ross co., S central Ohio, on the Scioto River; inc. 1802. It is the trade and distribution center of a farm area that specializes in raising cattle and hogs and growing corn. The city has long been noted for its large paper mills.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Christiansted Christiansted
, town (2010 pop. 2,433), chief city of St. Croix, one of the U.S. Virgin Islands. It is a shipping port for sugar and rum; tourism is the leading industry. Founded in 1733, Christiansted served briefly as capital of the Danish West Indies.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gary Gary,
city (1990 pop. 116,646), Lake co., NW Ind., a port of entry on Lake Michigan; inc. 1909. Gary was founded by the U.S. Steel Corporation, which purchased the land in 1905 and landscaped it for a city.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gateway National Recreation Area Gateway National Recreation Area,
N.Y.-N.J.: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve,
N Alaska. Located N of the Arctic Circle, the park (7,523,898 acres/3,046,113 hectares) and adjacent preserve (948,629 acres/384,060 hectares) make up the second largest unit of the National Park System.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Gauley River National Recreation Area Gauley River National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, General Grant National Memorial General Grant National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Jimmy Carter National Historic Site Jimmy Carter National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway,
Wyo.: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, John Muir National Historic Site John Muir National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, John Day John Day,
river, 281 mi (452 km) long, rising in several branches in the Strawberry Mts., NE Oreg., and flowing W, then N to the Columbia River. Unnavigable, the river is used to irrigate vegetable farms.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Johnson City Johnson City.
1 Village (1990 pop. 16,890), Broome co., S N.Y., in a tricity area including Endicott and Binghamton; inc. 1892. It has been noted for its Endicott-Johnson shoes.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Johnstown Flood National Memorial Johnstown Flood National Memorial:
see Johnstown (2); National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Johnstown Johnstown.
1 City (1990 pop. 9,058), seat of Fulton co., E central N.Y.; founded 1772, inc. 1895. Its leather-glove industry dates back to 1800; other leather and knitted goods are also made. Johnson Hall was built by the city's founder, Sir William Johnson.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Joshua Tree National Park Joshua Tree National Park,
1,022,703 acres (414,050 hectares), S California. Lying between the high Mojave Desert and the low Colorado Desert, this park has a unique ecosystem in which are preserved rare Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia
..... Click the link for more information.
, Juneau Juneau
, city (1990 pop. 26,751), state capital, SE Alaska, in the Alaska Panhandle; settled by gold miners 1880, inc. 1900. A port on Gastineau Channel, Juneau is a trade center for the Panhandle area, with an ice-free harbor and an airport.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Santa Fe Trail Santa Fe Trail,
important caravan route of the W United States, extending c.780 mi (1,260 km) from Independence, Mo., SW to Santa Fe, N.Mex. Independence and Westport, Mo., were the chief points where wagons, teams, and supplies were obtained.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Saratoga National Historical Park Saratoga National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wakefield , estate, United StatesWakefield,
family estate of George Washington, on the Potomac River, E Va.; part of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument (see National Parks and Monuments, table). John Washington, the great-grandfather of George, settled there in 1664.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wall Street Wall Street,
narrow street in the lower part of Manhattan island, New York City, extending E from Broadway to the East River. It is the center of one of the greatest financial districts in the world, and by extension the term "Wall St." has come to designate U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Walnut Canyon National Monument Walnut Canyon National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, War in the Pacific National Historical Park War in the Pacific National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Washington , state, United StatesWashington,
state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It is bordered by Idaho (E); Oregon, with the Columbia River marking much of the boundary (S); the Pacific Ocean (W); and the Canadian province of British Columbia (N).
..... Click the link for more information.
, William Howard Taft National Historic Site William Howard Taft National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lassen Volcanic National Park Lassen Volcanic National Park,
106,372 acres (43,081 hectares), N Calif., at the southern end of the Cascade Range. Proclaimed as Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone national monuments in 1907, the two were incorporated into a new national park in 1916.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Lava Beds National Monument Lava Beds National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Fort Vancouver National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Russell Cave National Monument Russell Cave National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Timucan Ecological and Historic Preserve Timucan Ecological and Historic Preserve:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Grand Staircase–Escalante National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Booker T. Washington National Monument Booker T. Washington National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cumberland Island National Seashore Cumberland Island National Seashore,
Ga.: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Boston National Historical Park Boston National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cape Krusenstern National Monument Cape Krusenstern National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Cape Lookout National Seashore Cape Lookout National Seashore:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Chickasaw National Recreation Area Chickasaw National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Boulder City Boulder City,
residential city (1990 pop. 12,567), S Nev., just W of Hoover Dam near Lake Mead; inc. 1959. Built (1932) by the federal government as headquarters during the dam's construction, it became a self-governing municipality by act of Congress in 1958.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Devils Postpile National Monument Devils Postpile National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Devils Tower National Monument Devils Tower National Monument,
1,347 acres (546 hectares), overlooking the Belle Fourche River, NE Wyo.; it was the first designated U.S. national monument (1906). Devils Tower, 865 ft (264 m) high and narrowing in width from 1,000 ft (305 m) at its base to 250 ft (76 m) at its
..... Click the link for more information.
, Jewel Cave National Monument Jewel Cave National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Hopewell Culture National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Dinosaur National Monument Dinosaur National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve,
SE Alaska, near Juneau. The park (3,224,840 acres/1,305,603 hectares) and the preserve (58,406 acres/23,646 hectares) were established in 1925 as a national monument and in 1980 designated a national park and preserve.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Glacier National Park , United StatesGlacier National Park,
1,013,572 acres (410,497 hectares), NW Mont.; est. 1910. Straddling the Continental Divide, the park contains some of the most beautiful primitive wilderness in the Rocky Mts.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Glen Canyon Dam Glen Canyon Dam,
710 ft (216 m) high, 1,560 ft (475 m) long, NE Ariz., on the Colorado River. The key unit of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Colorado River storage project, it is one of the world's largest concrete dams (larger in bulk, though not in height, than Hoover Dam).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Golden Gate National Recreation Area Golden Gate National Recreation Area,
Calif.: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Golden Spike National Historic Site Golden Spike National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Antietam National Cemetery Antietam National Cemetery:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pompeys Pillar National Monument Pompeys Pillar National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, pony express pony express,
in U.S. history, relay mail service. At its inception in Apr., 1860, the pony express operated between St. Joseph, Mo., the western end of a telegraph line, and Sacramento, Calif.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Portage Portage
. 1 Town (1990 pop. 29,060), Porter co., NW Ind., a suburb of Gary, on Lake Michigan; inc. 1959. The town, which was once surrounded by great industries, manufactures steel and a number of other goods.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Port Angeles Port Angeles
, city (1990 pop. 17,710), seat of Clallam co., NW Wash., on Juan de Fuca Strait opposite Victoria, British Columbia; inc. 1890. A port of entry with a good harbor, Port Angeles is a boating and fishing center, with ferry service to Victoria.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Springfield Springfield.
1 City (1990 pop. 105,227), state capital and seat of Sangamon co., central Ill., on the Sangamon River; settled 1818, inc. as a city 1840. In a rich agricultural region (sorghum, corn, cattle, and dairying), it is a wholesale trade, retail, and distribution
..... Click the link for more information.
, Steamtown National Historic Site Steamtown National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wisconsin , state, United StatesWisconsin
, upper midwestern state of the United States. It is bounded by Lake Superior and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, from which it is divided in part by the Menominee River (N); Lake Michigan (E); Illinois (S); and Iowa and Minnesota (W), with the Mississippi River
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Women's Rights National Historical Park Women's Rights National Historical Park:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve Wrangell–Saint Elias National Park and Preserve,
at the convergence of the Chugach, Wrangell, and St. Elias mts., SW Alaska. The park (8,323,618 acres/3,369,856 hectares) contains Mt.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wright Brothers National Memorial Wright Brothers National Memorial:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wupatki National Monument Wupatki National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Wyoming , state, United StatesWyoming
, least populous state in the United States, one of the Rocky Mt. states of the West. It is bordered by South Dakota and Nebraska (E), Colorado and Utah (S), Idaho (W), and Montana (N). Facts and Figures

Area, 97,914 sq mi (253,597 sq km). Pop.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Michigan, Lake Michigan, Lake,
22,178 sq mi (57,441 sq km), 307 mi (494 km) long and 30 to 120 mi (48–193 km) wide, bordered by Mich., Ind., Ill., and Wis.; third largest of the Great Lakes and the only one entirely within the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Michigan City Michigan City,
city (1990 pop. 33,822), La Porte co., NW Ind., on Lake Michigan; inc. 1836. Michigan City produces machinery, consumer articles, kitchen and transportation equipment, concrete and wire products, chemicals, apparel, and cast iron boilers.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Middlesborough Middlesborough,
city (1990 pop. 11,328), Bell co., S Ky., in the Cumberland Mts. near the point where Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia meet; inc. 1890. It is a coal-mining center with meat and coal processing, leather tanning, and diverse manufacturing.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Minidoka Internment National Monument Minidoka Internment National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mill Valley Mill Valley,
city (1990 pop. 13,038), Marin co., W Calif., a suburb on Richardson Bay, an inlet of San Francisco Bay; inc. 1900. It is a residential community set in heavily timbered hills and valleys; redwood trees predominate.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Manzanar National Historic Site Manzanar National Historic Site:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Marietta Marietta
. 1 City (1990 pop. 44,129), seat of Cobb co., NW Ga.; inc. 1834. The principal manufactures of this suburb of Atlanta are related to aircraft production. At the foot of Kennesaw Mt.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Arkansas Post Arkansas Post
, community on the Arkansas River, SE Ark. Founded by the French in 1686 as a trading post, it is the oldest white settlement in the state; it became the capital of the Arkansas territory in 1819.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial,
28 acres (11 hectares), NE Va., in Arlington National Cemetery; est. 1955. Formerly called the Custis-Lee Mansion, it is a memorial to the Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Assateague Island National Seashore Assateague Island National Seashore:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Congaree National Park Congaree National Park,
21,888 acres (8,862 hectares), central S.C., est. as Congaree Swamp National Monument 1976, designated a national park and renamed 2003. Located along the north bank of the meandering Congaree River, the park contains the largest tract of old-growth
..... Click the link for more information.
, Constitution Gardens Constitution Gardens:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Hobart , city, United StatesHobart
, city (1990 pop. 21,822), Lake co., extreme NW Ind.; settled c.1849, inc. 1921. Metal products, electric coils and transformers, herbal products, tools and castings, and processed foods are made in Hobart.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Poverty Point National Monument Poverty Point National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, President Lincoln and Soldier's Home National Monument President Lincoln and Soldier's Home National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park,
2,219,791 acres (899,015 hectares), the world's first national park (est. 1872), NW Wyo., extending into Montana and Idaho. It lies mainly on a broad plateau in the Rocky Mts., on the Continental Divide, c.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Yorktown Yorktown,
historic town (1990 pop. 270), seat of York co., SE Va., on the York River 10 mi (16 km) from its mouth on Chesapeake Bay; settled 1631, laid out 1691. It is included in the Colonial National Historical Park (see National Parks and Monuments, table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Yosemite National Park Yosemite National Park
, 748,436 acres (302,881 hectares), E central Calif.; est. 1890 as a result of the efforts of conservationist John Muir. Located in the Sierra Nevada, it is a glacier-scoured area of great beauty; Mt. Lyell (13,114 ft/3,997 m) is the highest peak.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Yucca House National Monument Yucca House National Monument:
see National Parks and Monuments (table).
..... Click the link for more information.
, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve,
2,526,512 acres (1,022,879 hectares), E central Alaska. The preserve, which protects the two river basins, near the Canadian border, contains paleontological and archeological sites, as well as old cabins and relics from the gold rush of
..... Click the link for more information.
, Zion National Park Zion National Park,
146,592 acres (59,349 hectares), SW Utah. First proclaimed a national monument in 1909, it was enlarged several times and established as a national park in 1919.
..... Click the link for more information.

National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
American Samoa NP American Samoa 1988 9,000 (3,645) Two rain forest preserves and a coral reef.
Arches NP E Utah 1929 76,519 (30,979) Giant arches formed by erosion; designated a national park in 1971.
Badlands NP SW S.Dak. 1929 242,756 (98,316) Gullies, ridges, and other erosional landforms; fossils. See badlandsbadlands,
area of severe erosion, usually found in semiarid climates and characterized by countless gullies, steep ridges, and sparse vegetation. Badland topography is formed on poorly cemented sediments that have few deep-rooted plants because short, heavy showers sweep away
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Big Bend NP W Tex. 1935 801,163 (324,471) Canyons and desert plain on the Rio Grande; Chisos Mts. Designated a national park in 1944.
Biscayne NP SE Fla. 1968 172,924 (70,010) Aquatic park encompassing 25 islands. Example of a living coral reef; includes part of Biscayne BayBiscayne Bay
, shallow, narrow inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, c.40 mi (60 km) long, SE Fla. Famous resort areas, including Miami and Miami Beach, are on the NW and NE respectively. Tourism is the economic mainstay.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Enlarged and designated a national park in 1980.
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NP W Colo. 1933 30,300 (12,272) Deep, narrow canyon of the GunnisonGunnison,
river, 180 mi (290 km) long, rising in W central Colo. and flowing SW, W, and NW to the Colorado River at Grand Junction. It flows through magnificent canyons, notably the Black Canyon of the Gunnison, a national park. Gunnison Tunnel, c.
..... Click the link for more information.
 River, named for its dark-colored walls, which are always in shadow; designated a national park in 1999.
Bryce Canyon NP SW Utah 1924 35,835 (14,513) Canyon with colored walls and rock formations.
Canyonlands NP SE Utah 1964 337,598 (136,679) Rocks, spires, and mesas; Native American rock art and ruins.
Capitol Reef NP S Utah 1937 241,904 (97,971) Highly colored sandstone cliffs dissected by gorges; named for a white, dome-shaped rock.
Carlsbad Caverns NP SE N.Mex. 1923 46,766 (18,940) Great limestone caverns. Designated a national park in 1930.
Cuyahoga Valley NP NE Ohio 1974 32,950 (13,334) Preserves rural character of Cuyahoga River Valley.
Channel Islands NP SW Calif. 1938 249,354 (100,988) Part of the Channel IslandsChannel Islands
or Santa Barbara Islands
, chain of eight rugged islands and many islets, extending c.150 mi (240 km) along the S Calif. coast from Point Conception to San Diego.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Nesting sea birds, sea lions, the island fox, and unique plants.
Crater Lake NP SW Oreg. 1902 183,224 (74,206) Blue lake in a volcanic crater.
Congaree NP Central S.C. 1976 21,888 (8,862) Last significant tract of southern bottomland hardwood forest in the United States.
Death Valley NP SE Calif., SW Nev. 1933 3,367,628 (1,363,412) Lowest point in Western Hemisphere; desert environment.
Denali PP S Alaska 1917 6,075,690 (2,459,794) Contains DenaliDenali,
formerly Mount McKinley,
peak, 20,310 ft (6,190 m) high, S central Alaska, in the Alaska Range; highest point in North America. Permanent snowfields cover more than half the mountain and feed numerous glaciers.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (Mt. McKinley), North America's highest mountain (20,310 ft/6,190 m); wildlife preserve.
Dry Tortugas NP S Fla. 1935 64,701 (26,195) Contains Fort Jefferson, the largest all-masonry fort in the Western Hemisphere, built 1846. See Dry TortugasDry Tortugas
, island group in the Gulf of Mexico, off S Fla., 60 mi (97 km) W of Key West. Named by the Spanish explorer Ponce de León in 1513, the islands later became a pirate base. They are famous for their bird and marine life. Loggerhead Key is the largest island.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Everglades PE S Fla. 1934 1,508,580 (610,761) Subtropical wilderness with prairies, mangroves, great variety of birds. See EvergladesEverglades,
marshy, low-lying subtropical savanna area, c.4,000 sq mi (10,000 sq km), S Fla., extending from Lake Okeechobee S to Florida Bay. Characterized by water, sawgrass, hammocks (islandlike masses of vegetation), palms, pine and mangrove forests, and solidly packed black
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Gates of the Arctic PP N Alaska 1978 8,472,527 (3,430,173) Vast wilderness within the Arctic Circle.
Glacier NP NW Mont. 1910 1,013,572 (410,497) Glaciers, forests, and lakes; on the Continental Divide.
Glacier Bay PP SE Alaska 1925 3,283,246 (1,329,249) Glaciers, ice displays.
Grand Canyon NP NW Ariz. 1908 1,217,403 (492,876) Great gorge of the Colorado River. See Grand CanyonGrand Canyon,
great gorge of the Colorado River, one of the natural wonders of the world; c.1 mi (1.6 km) deep, from 4 to 18 mi (6.4–29 km) wide, and 217 mi (349 km) long, NW Ariz.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Grand Teton NP NW Wyo. 1929 309,993 (125,503) Scenic portion of the Teton Range; Jackson Hole.
Great Basin NP Nev. 1986 77,180 (31,258) Features Lehman Caves, an ice field on Wheeler Peak, ancient bristlecone pines, and a limestone arch. See Great BasinGreat Basin,
semiarid, N section of the Basin and Range province, the intermontane plateau region of W United States and N Mexico. Lying mostly in Nevada and extending into California, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah, it is bordered by the Sierra Nevada on the west, the Columbia Plateau
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Great Sand Dunes PP S Colo. 1932 84,670 (34,257) Large, high sand dunes in the Sangre de Cristo Mts.
Great Smoky Mountains NP N.C., Tenn. 1926 521,621 (211,183) Wild, beautiful area in the Great Smoky MountainsGreat Smoky Mountains,
part of the Appalachian system, on the N.C.–Tenn. border; highest range E of the Mississippi and one of the oldest uplands on earth. The mountains are named for the smokelike haze that envelops them.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Guadalupe Mountains NP W Tex. 1966 86,416 (34,998) Mountain region; contains a limestone fossil reef.
Haleakala NP Maui Island, Hawaii 1916 29,824 (12,074) Haleakala crater; rare and endangered species.
Hawaii Volcanoes NP Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1916 209,695 (84,926) Volcanic region; lush vegetation.
Hot Springs NP W central Ark. 1921 5,549 (2,247) Mineral springs.
Isle Royale NP NW Mich. 1931 571,790 (231,575) Forested island in Lake Superior.
Joshua Tree NP S Calif. 1936 1,022,703 (414,050) Rare Joshua trees, or "praying plants"; named by Mormons because of upstretched arms.
Katmai PP SE Alaska 1918 4,093,229 (1,657,178) Deep forest with lakes and active volcanoes.
Kenai Fjords NP S Alaska 1978 669,983 (271,248) Wilderness preserve, vast ice fields, fjords, and outflowing glaciers.
Kings Canyon NP E central Calif. 1890 461,901 (187,070) Canyons, peaks, sequoias.
Kobuk Valley NP NW Alaska 1978 1,750,737 (709,048) A wildlife preserve north of the Arctic Circle; archaeological remnants of 10,000 years of human habitation.
Lake Clark PP S Alaska 1978 4,030,058 (1,631,602) Waterfalls, tundra, and active volcanoes.
Lassen Volcanic NP N Calif. 1907 106,372 (43,081) Volcanic peaks and lava formations.
Mammoth Cave NP Central Ky. 1926 52,830 (21,396) Longest recorded cave system in the world.
Mesa Verde NP SW Colo. 1906 52,122 (21,109) Prehistoric cliff dwellings.
Mount Rainier NP SW Wash. 1899 235,625 (95,395) Volcanic peak and glaciers; subalpine meadows.
North Cascades NP N Wash. 1968 504,781 (204,436) Area of noted alpine scenery in the Cascade Range; bisected by Ross Lake National Recreation Area.
Olympic NP NW Wash. 1909 922,651 (373,674) Rain forests and glaciers in the Olympic MountainsOlympic Mountains,
highest part of the Coast Ranges, on the Olympic Peninsula, NW Wash. Mt. Olympus (7,965 ft/2,427 m) is the highest point in the mountains, which are composed mainly of sedimentary rock.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Petrified Forest NP E Ariz. 1906 93,533 (37,881) Petrified logs; portions of the Painted Desert.
Pinnacles NP W Calif. 1908 26,006 (10,524) Rock spires from 500 to 1,200 ft (150 to 365 m) high; caves.
Redwood NP NW Calif. 1968 112,430 (45,518) Coastal redwood forests.
Rocky Mountain NP Central Colo. 1915 265,723 (107,580) Scenic Rocky MountainsRocky Mountains,
major mountain system of W North America and easternmost belt of the North American cordillera, extending more than 3,000 mi (4,800 km) from central N.Mex. to NW Alaska; Mt. Elbert (14,431 ft/4,399 m) in Colorado is the highest peak.
..... Click the link for more information.
 region on the Continental Divide; many high, snowcapped peaks.
Saguaro NP SE Ariz. 1933 91,443 (37,021) Saguaro, other cacti, varied desert growth.
Sequoia NP E Calif. 1890 402,510 (162,960) Groves of giant sequoias.
Shenandoah NP N Va. 1926 198,081 (80,195) Forested region of the Blue RidgeBlue Ridge,
eastern range of the Appalachian Mts., extending south from S Pa. to N Ga.; highest mountains in the E United States. Mt. Mitchell, 6,684 ft (2,037 m) high, is the tallest peak. Beginning with a narrow ridge in the north, c.
..... Click the link for more information.
 Mts.
Theodore Roosevelt NP W N.Dak. 1947 70,447 (28,531) Part of Roosevelt's Elkhorn Ranch; badlands along the Little Missouri River.
Virgin Islands NP Virgin Islands, on St. John 1956 14,689 (5,949) Unusual scenery, marine life, coral gardens; ruins of Danish colonial sugar plantations.
Voyageurs NP N Minn. 1971 218,200 (88,340) Scenic northern lakes region; interesting glacial features and history.
Wind Cave NP SW S.Dak. 1903 28,295 (11,459) Limestone caverns in the Black Hills.
Wrangell–St. Elias PP SW Alaska 1978 13,176,371 (5,334,563) Largest unit in the National Park System; numerous peaks over 16,000 ft (4,900 m), abundant wildlife.
Yellowstone NP Wyo., Mont., Idaho 1872 2,219,791 (899,015) Geysers and hot springs, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone; first national park.
Yosemite NP E Central Calif. 1890 761,266 (308,205) Mountain region with Yosemite Valley.
Zion NP SW Utah 1909 146,592 (59,349) Multicolored canyon in a desert region.

National Monuments
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Agate Fossil Beds MO NW Nebr. 1965 3,055 (1,237) World-famous quarries containing numerous well-preserved Miocene mammal fossils; museum of Native American artifacts.
Agua Fria MO Central Ariz. 2000 71,100 (28,796) A Native American settlement system dating to A.D. 1250–1450, spread over two mesas and the Agua Fria River canyon; more than 450 sites with pueblos, stone forts, and petroglyphs.
Alibates Flint Quarries MO NW Tex. 1965 1,371 (555) Flint quarries, first worked by Native Americans c.10,000 years ago; rich archaeological and historic area.
Aniakchak MR SW Alaska 1978 602,779 (244,040) Volcano; wilderness and wildlife preserve.
Aztec Ruins MO NW N.Mex. 1923 319 (129) Ruins of a Pueblo town.
Bandelier MO N N.Mex. 1916 33,677 (13,634) Ruins of 13th-century Pueblo cliff dwellings.
Belmont-Paul Women's Equality MO Washington, D.C. 2016 .8 (.3) Sewall-Belmont House and Museum, headquarters of the National Woman's party.
Booker T. Washington MO Central Va. 1956 224 (91) Birthplace and childhood home of Booker T. WashingtonWashington, Booker Taliaferro,
1856–1915, American educator, b. Franklin co., Va. Washington was born into slavery; his mother was a mulatto slave on a plantation, his father a white man whom he never knew.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Buck Island Reef MO Virgin Islands, on Buck Island 1961 880 (356) One of the finest marine gardens in the Caribbean; bird rookeries and grottoes.
Cabrillo MO SW Calif. 1913 137 (55) Memorial to Juan Rodríguez CabrilloCabrillo, Juan Rodríguez
, Port. João Rodrigues Cabrilho, d. 1543, Spanish conquistador and discoverer of California, b. Portugal. In 1520 he landed in Mexico with Pánfilo de Narváez and joined in the conquests of Mexico and Guatemala.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
California Coastal MO W Calif. 2000 Thousands of islands, rocks, and reefs within 12 mi (19 km) of California's 840-mi (1,350-km) coastline as well as Point Arena-Stornetta on the mainland; includes nesting grounds of seabirds and marine mammals.
Canyon de Chelly MO NE Ariz. 1931 83,840 (33,955) Ruins of prehistoric Native American villages.
Canyons of the Ancients MO SW Colo. 2000 164,000 (66,420) Rugged landscape that is archaeologically rich, with some sites dating to 10,000 years ago; later pit houses, cliff dwellings, and pueblos.
Cape Krusenstern MO Alaska 1978 649,182 (262,828) Archaeological sites of indigenous communities dating back 4,000 years.
Capulin Volcano MO NE N.Mex. 1916 793 (321) Huge cinder cone of inactive volcano.
Carrizo Plain MO W central Calif. 2001 204,000 (82,560) Grasslands and wetlands, including akali Soda Lake, in Central Valley. Home to threatened or endangered species.
Casa Grande MO S Ariz. 1892 473 (191) Huge building built c.600 years ago, in the ruins of a Native American pueblo.
Cascade-Siskiyou MO S central Oregon 2000 52,000 (21,060) A biologically diverse and ecologically unique area that also includes Soda Mountain, Pilot Rock, and Siskiyou Pass.
Castillo de San Marcos MO NE Fla. 1924 20 (8) Old Spanish masonry fort in Saint AugustineSaint Augustine
, city (1990 pop. 11,692), seat of St. Johns co., NE Fla.; inc. 1824. Located on a peninsula between the Matanzas and San Sebastian rivers, it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by Anastasia Island; the Intracoastal Waterway passes through the city. St.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fla.
Castle Clinton MO SE N.Y. 1946 1 (.4) See Battery, theBattery, the,
park, 21 acres (8.5 hectares), southern tip of Manhattan island, New York City; site of former Dutch and English fortifications. Castle Clinton, a fort built in 1808 for the defense of New York harbor, was ceded to the city in 1823 and renamed Castle Garden.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Cedar Breaks MO SW Utah 1933 6,155 (2,493) Amphitheater (2,000 ft/610 m deep) formed by erosion.
Chiricahua MO SE Ariz. 1924 11,985 (4,854) Odd-shaped rock formations.
Colorado MO W Colo. 1911 20,534 (8,313) Huge monoliths and other unusual erosional features.
Craters of the Moon MO S Idaho 1924 53,440 (21,636) Volcanic cones, craters, fissures, lava flows.
Devils Postpile MO E Calif. 1911 798 (323) Basaltic columns, some 60 ft (18 m) high.
Devils Tower MO NE Wyo. 1906 1,347 (546) Volcanic rock tower; first national monument.
Dinosaur MO Colo., Utah 1915 210,278 (85,133) Rich quarries of well-preserved fossils.
Effigy Mounds MO NE Iowa 1949 1,481 (600) Outstanding examples of prehistoric Native American mounds.
El Malpais MO N.Mex. 1987 114,277 (46,282) In English, "the badlands"; volcanic area; also rich in Pueblo history.
El Morro MO W N.Mex. 1906 1,279 (518) Sandstone monolith with inscriptions of Spanish explorers and American pioneers.
Florissant Fossil Beds MO Central Colo. 1969 5,998 (2,429) Well-preserved insect, seed, and leaf fossils of the Oligocene period; petrified sequoia tree stumps.
Fort Frederica MO SE Ga. 1936 241 (98) Ruins of a fort built by James OglethorpeOglethorpe, James Edward
, 1696–1785, English general and philanthropist, founder of the American colony of Georgia. He had some military experience before being elected (1722) to the House of Commons, where he held a seat for 32 years.
..... Click the link for more information.
 on one of the Sea Islands.
Fort McHenry MO N Md. 1925 43 (17) See Fort McHenryFort McHenry,
former U.S. military post in Baltimore harbor; built 1794–1805. In the War of 1812 it was bombarded (Sept. 13–14, 1814) by a British fleet under Sir Alexander Cochrane, but the fort, commanded by Maj. George Armistead, resisted the attack.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Fort Matanzas MO NE Fla. 1924 228 (92) Spanish fort in Saint AugustineSaint Augustine
, city (1990 pop. 11,692), seat of St. Johns co., NE Fla.; inc. 1824. Located on a peninsula between the Matanzas and San Sebastian rivers, it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by Anastasia Island; the Intracoastal Waterway passes through the city. St.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Fla.
Fort Pulaski MO SE Ga. 1924 5,623 (2,277) Fort on Cockspur Island. See Fort PulaskiFort Pulaski
, brick fortification on Cockspur Island, SE Ga., at the mouth of the Savannah River; built 1829–47 by the U.S. government and named for Casimir Pulaski. The fort was seized by Georgia troops during the Civil War in Jan.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Fort Stanwix MO Central N.Y. 1935 16 (6) See Fort StanwixFort Stanwix,
colonial outpost on the site of Rome, N.Y., controlling a principal route from the Hudson River to Lake Ontario. Originally a French trading center, it was rebuilt by the English general John Stanwix in 1758.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Fort Sumter MO SE S.C. 1948 195 (79) Scene of the engagement that opened the Civil War. See Fort SumterFort Sumter,
fortification, built 1829–60, on a shoal at the entrance to the harbor of Charleston, S.C., and named for Gen. Thomas Sumter; scene of the opening engagement of the Civil War. Upon passing the Ordinance of Secession (Dec.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Fort Union MO NW N.Mex. 1954 721 (292) Ruins of a U.S. army fort on the Santa Fe Trail.
Fossil Butte MO W Wyo. 1972 8,198 (3,320) Area containing Paleocene-Eocene fossil fish.
George Washington Birthplace MO E Va. 1930 627 (254) Estate and reconstructed mansion. See WakefieldWakefield,
family estate of George Washington, on the Potomac River, E Va.; part of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument (see National Parks and Monuments, table). John Washington, the great-grandfather of George, settled there in 1664.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
George Washington Carver MO SW Mo. 1943 210 (85) Birthplace and boyhood home of George Washington CarverCarver, George Washington,
1864?–1943, American agricultural chemist, b. Diamond, Mo., grad. Iowa State College (now Iowa State Univ.; B.S., 1894; M.A. 1896). Born a slave, he later, as a free man, earned his college degree.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Giant Sequoia MO E Calif. 2000 328,000 (132,742) Last remaining 34 groves of ancient sequoia trees within Sequoia National Forest.
Gila Cliff Dwellings MO SW N.Mex. 1907 533 (216) Well-preserved dwellings built by the Pueblo into a 150-ft (46-m) cliff.
Governors Island MO SE N.Y. 2003 22 (9) Early 1800s fortifications in New York harbor and their surroundings.
Grand Canyon–Parashant MO NW Ariz. 2000 1,014,000 (410,670) Canyons, mountains, and buttes on the W portion of the Grand Canyon's north rim. Prehistoric and 19th-century remains; rare condors and tortoises.
Grand Portage MO NE Minn. 1951 710 (288) 9-mi (14-km) portage on the route to the Northwest used by explorers, missionaries, and fur traders.
Grand Staircase–Escalante MO S Utah 1996 1,700,000 (688,000) Rock formations; natural arches and bridges; prehistoric dwellings and rock art; fossil sites.
Hagerman Fossil Beds MO S Idaho 1988 4,351 (1,762) Fossils dating from the Pliocene era.
Hanford Reach MO S central Wash. 2000 195,000 (78,975) Free-flowing nontidal stretch of the Columbia River with salmon spawing grounds and the shrub-steppe ecosystem originally typical of the river basin.
Hohokam Pima MO Central Ariz. 1972 1,690 (684) Archaeological remains of the Hohokam culture.
Homestead MO SE Nebr. 1936 195 (79) Site of the first farm claimed under the Homestead ActHomestead Act,
1862, passed by the U.S. Congress. It provided for the transfer of 160 acres (65 hectares) of unoccupied public land to each homesteader on payment of a nominal fee after five years of residence; land could also be acquired after six months of residence at $1.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Honouliuli MO Oahu, Hawaii 2015 Site of a World War II internment and prisoner of war camp that held Japanese and European American citizens and immigrants.
Hovenweep MO Utah, Colo. 1923 785 (318) Prehistoric Native American pueblos and cliff dwellings.
Ironwood Forest MO S Ariz. 2000 129,000 (52,245) Mountainous desert landscape with large stands of ironwood trees; saguaro forests and bighorn sheep; historic Hohokam sites.
Jewel Cave MO SW S.Dak. 1908 1,274 (516) Limestone caves with chambers connected by narrow passages; in the Black Hills.
John Day Fossil Beds MO N central Oregon 1974 14,014 (5,676) Consists of Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, and Clarno locations. Its rich fossil remains extend over four prehistoric periods.
Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks MO N central N.Mex. 2001 4,114 (1,665) Canyons, cliffs, and cone-shaped rock formations with nesting birds.
Katahdin Woods and Waters MO N central Maine 2016 87,500 (35,400) Mountains and wilderness in Maine's North Woods.
Lava Beds MO N Calif. 1925 46,560 (18,857) Examples of volcanism; scene of Modoc uprising.
Little Bighorn Battlefield MO SE Mont. 1879 765 (310) Site of the battle between five companies of the Seventh Cavalry, commanded by George Armstrong Custer, and the Sioux and Cheyenne.
Minidoka Internment MO S Idaho 2001 73 (30) Site of a World War II internment camp for Japanese Americans. See relocation centerrelocation center,
in U.S. history, camp in which Japanese and Japanese-Americans were interned during World War II. Fearing a Japanese invasion, the military leaders, under authority of an executive order, defined (Mar.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Montezuma Castle MO Central Ariz. 1906 858 (347) Well-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings.
Muir Woods MO W Calif. 1908 554 (224) Virgin stand of coastal redwoods.
Natural Bridges MO SE Utah 1908 7,636 (3,093) Three huge natural sandstone bridges.
Navajo MO NE Ariz. 1909 360 (146) Ruins of large cliff dwellings.
Newberry MO Central Oregon 1990 50,500 (20,453) Caldera of a 500 sq mi (1,300 sq km) volcano, with lava flows, cinder cones, and the Lava Cast Forest.
Ocmulgee MO Central Ga. 1934 702 (284) Remains of prehistoric temple mounds.
Oregon Caves MO SW Oreg. 1909 488 (198) Limestone caverns with four levels; rock formations.
Organ Pipe Cactus MO S Ariz. 1937 330,689 (133,929) Unique Sonoran Desert plants and animals.
Petroglyph MO N.Mex. 1990 7,232 (2,928) More than 15,000 prehistoric and historic Native American and Hispanic petroglyphs and rock art carvings.
Pipe Spring MO NW Ariz. 1923 40 (16) Spring first visited by the Mormons; old fort.
Pipestone MO SW Minn. 1937 282 (114) Quarry that was a source for Native American peace pipes; park includes Upper Midwest Indian Cultural Center.
Pompeys Pillar MO S central Mont. 2001 51 (21) Large sandstone butte on Yellowstone River with inscription by William Clark.
Poverty Point MO NE La. 1988 911 (369) Remains of a 2d millenium B.C. culture.
President Lincoln and Soldier's Home MO Washington, D.C. 2000 2.3 (.9) Historic Anderson Cottage, used as a summer retreat by Lincoln and other presidents.
Pullman MO Chicago, Ill. 2015 203 (82) America's first planned industrial town; factories and buildings associated with the Pullman Palace Car Company.
Rainbow Bridge MO S Utah 1910 160 (65) Pink sandstone arch.
Russell Cave MO NE Ala. 1961 310 (126) Cave containing a nearly continuous archaeological record of human habitation from about 7000 B.C. to A.D. 1650.
Salinas Pueblo Missions MO Central N.Mex. 1909 1,071 (434) Four 17th-century mission churches and ruins of three Pueblo villages.
Scotts Bluff MO W Nebr. 1919 3,003 (1,216) Landmark on the Oregon Trail.
Sonoran Desert MO SW Ariz. 2001 486,000 (196,684) Biologically diverse desert with mountain ranges and lowland valleys. Historical and archaeological remains.
Statue of Liberty MO SE N.Y. 1924 58 (23) See Liberty, Statue ofLiberty, Statue of,
statue on Liberty Island in Upper New York Bay, commanding the entrance to New York City. Liberty Island, c.10 acres (4 hectares), formerly Bedloe's Island (renamed in 1956), was the former site of a quarantine station and harbor fortifications.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Stonewall MO SE N.Y. 2016 7.7 (3.1) Stonewall Inn and environs, site of 1969 Stonewall riot, the beginning of the modern gay-rights movementgay-rights movement,
organized efforts to end the criminalization of homosexuality and protect the civil rights of homosexuals. While there was some organized activity on behalf of the rights of homosexuals from the mid-19th through the first half of the 20th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Sunset Crater Volcano MO N Ariz. 1930 3,040 (1,231) Volcanic cinder cone with multicolored crater.
Timpanogos Cave MO N Utah 1922 250 (101) Limestone cavern on Mt. Timpanogos.
Tonto MO Central Ariz. 1907 1,120 (454) Well-preserved 14th-century cliff dwellings built by Native Americans in the Salt River valley.
Tuzigoot MO Central Ariz. 1939 801 (324) Excavated ruins of a large Native American pueblo.
Upper Missouri River Breaks MO N central Mont. 2001 377,346 (152,825) Rugged, remote ecosystem paralleling the Upper Missouri National Wild and Scenic River; explored by Lewis and Clark.
U.S. Virgin Islands Coral Reef MO Virgin Islands, off St. John 2001 12,000 (4,856) Mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs, home to many sea animals and birds.
Vermilion Cliffs MO N Ariz. 2000 293,000 (118,577) Remote cliffs, plateaus, canyons, and desert grasslands; fossilized dinosaur footprints.
Walnut Canyon MO N Ariz. 1915 3,579 (1,449) 12th-century Sinagua cliff dwellings.
White Sands MO S N.Mex. 1933 143,733 (58,212) Wind-drifted gypsum sands.
Wupatki MO N Ariz. 1924 35,422 (14,341) Several prehistoric pueblos.
Yucca House MO SW Colo. 1919 34 (14) Unexcavated ruins of a prehistoric Native American village.

National and International Historic Sites and Historical Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace HS Central Ky. 1916 117 (47) Traditional birthplace cabin in memorial building on site of Lincoln's birthplace.
Adams HP E Mass. 1946 14 (6) Home of Presidents John AdamsAdams, John,
1735–1826, 2d President of the United States (1797–1801), b. Quincy (then in Braintree), Mass., grad. Harvard, 1755. John Adams and his wife, Abigail Adams, founded one of the most distinguished families of the United States; their son, John Quincy
..... Click the link for more information.
, John Quincy AdamsAdams, John Quincy,
1767–1848, 6th President of the United States (1825–29), b. Quincy (then in Braintree), Mass.; son of John Adams and Abigail Adams and father of Charles Francis Adams (1807–86).
..... Click the link for more information.
, and other members of the family.
Allegheny Portage Railroad HS SW Pa. 1964 1,249 (506) Inclined-plane railroad that lifted passengers and cargoes of boats on the Pennsylvania Canal over the Allegheny Mts.
Andersonville HS SW Ga. 1970 495 (200) Civil War prison camp and national prisoner of war memorial. See under AndersonvilleAndersonville,
village (1990 pop. 277), SW Ga., near Americus; inc. 1881. In Andersonville Prison, officially known as Camp Sumter, tens of thousands of Union soldiers were confined during the Civil War under conditions so bad that nearly 13,000 soldiers died.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Andrew Johnson HS NE Tenn. 1935 17 (7) Home, shop, and grave of President Andrew JohnsonJohnson, Andrew,
1808–75, 17th President of the United States (1865–69), b. Raleigh, N.C. Early Life

His father died when Johnson was 3, and at 14 he was apprenticed to a tailor.
..... Click the link for more information.
; site includes Andrew Johnson National Cemetery.
Appomattox Court House HP S central Va. 1930 1,775 (719) Site of Lee's surrender to Grant. See under AppomattoxAppomattox
, town (1990 pop. 1,707), seat of Appomattox co., central Va.; inc. 1925. Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant at nearby Appomattox Courthouse on Apr. 9, 1865. After Gen.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Va.
Bent's Old Fort HS SE Colo. 1960 799 (323) Fur-trading post and rest station on the Santa Fe TrailSanta Fe Trail,
important caravan route of the W United States, extending c.780 mi (1,260 km) from Independence, Mo., SW to Santa Fe, N.Mex. Independence and Westport, Mo., were the chief points where wagons, teams, and supplies were obtained.
..... Click the link for more information.
; built c.1830 by Charles BentBent, Charles,
1799–1847, American frontiersman, b. St. Louis. He entered the fur trade of the Missouri River and became one of the mountain men. His interests turned to the Southwest, and he led expeditions on the Santa Fe Trail.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and William BentBent, William,
1809–69, American frontiersman, b. St. Louis. One of the younger brothers of Charles Bent, he was for many years the manager of Bent's Fort, while Charles Bent lived mainly in Taos.
..... Click the link for more information.
. See Bent's FortBent's Fort,
trading post of the American West, on the Arkansas River in present-day SE Colorado, E of Rocky Ford and La Junta and several miles above the mouth of the Purgatoire. The trading company headed by Charles Bent and Ceran St.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Boston HP E Mass. 1974 41 (17) Many sites include Old South Meeting House, the home of Paul Revere, obelisk commemorating the Battle of Bunker Hill, and part of the Charlestown Navy Yard.
Boston African American HS E Mass. 1980 .38 (.15) Site features oldest African-American church in the United States and the Black Heritage Trail.
Brown v. Board of Education HS NE Kansas 1992 2 (.8) See Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans.Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans.,
case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954. Linda Brown was denied admission to her local elementary school in Topeka because she was black.
..... Click the link for more information.
Cane River Creole HP SE La. 1994 207 (84) Plantations and other sites associated with the development of creole culture.
Carl Sandburg Home HS SW N.C. 1968 264 (107) Farm home of author Carl SandburgSandburg, Carl,
1878–1967, American poet, journalist, and biographer, b. Galesburg, Ill. The son of poor Swedish immigrants, he left school at the age of 13 and became a day laborer.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Chaco Culture HP NW N.Mex. 1907 33,974 (13,759) 13 pre-Columbian ruins of the Ancestral Pueblo peoples. Ruins representing the highest point of PuebloPueblo,
name given by the Spanish to the sedentary Native Americans who lived in stone or adobe communal houses in what is now the SW United States. The term pueblo is also used for the villages occupied by the Pueblo.
..... Click the link for more information.
 prehistoric civilization (A.D. 900–1000).
Charles Pinckney HS SE S.C. 1988 28 (11) Home and estate of American diplomat and framer of the Constitution.
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal HP D.C., Md., W.Va. 1938 19,236 (7,791) See Chesapeake and Ohio CanalChesapeake and Ohio Canal,
former waterway, c.185 mi (300 km) long, from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Md., running along the north bank of the Potomac River. A successor to the Potomac Company's (1784–1828) navigation improvement project, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
..... Click the link for more information.
. Proclaimed a national monument in 1961, a national historical park in 1971.
Christiansted HS Virgin Islands, on St. Croix 1952 27 (11) Commemorates the Virgin Islands' colonial development, especially under Danish rule in the 18th and 19th cent.
Clara Barton HS S Md. 1974 9 (4) Home and offices of the founder of the American Red Cross.
Colonial HP SE Va. 1930 9,350 (3,785) Historic Yorktown, Jamestown, and Cape Henry. Colonial Parkway connects some sites with Williamsburg.
Cumberland Gap HP Ky., Tenn., Va. 1940 20,454 (8,281) Mountain pass of the Wilderness Road. See Cumberland GapCumberland Gap,
natural passage through the Cumberland Mts., near the point where Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee meet. The gap was formed by the erosive action of a stream that once flowed there. It was explored and named in 1750 by Dr.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Dayton Aviation Heritage HP W Ohio 1992 86 (35) Site honors life and work of the Wright brothersWright brothers,
American airplane inventors and aviation pioneers. Orville Wright 1871–1948, was born in Dayton, Ohio, and Wilbur Wright, 1867–1912, near New Castle, Ind.
..... Click the link for more information.
, as well as poet Paul Laurence DunbarDunbar, Paul Laurence
, 1872–1906, American poet and novelist, b. Dayton, Ohio. The son of former slaves, he won recognition with his Lyrics of Lowly Life (1896)—a collection of poems from his Oak and Ivy (1893) and Majors and Minors (1895).
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Edgar Allan Poe HS SE Pa. 1978 .52 (.21) In 1843, PoePoe, Edgar Allan,
1809–49, American poet, short-story writer, and critic, b. Boston. He is acknowledged today as one of the most brilliant and original writers in American literature.
..... Click the link for more information.
 lived here and wrote several of his most famous stories.
Edison HS NE N.J. 1962 21 (9) Buildings and equipment used by Thomas A. EdisonEdison, Thomas Alva,
1847–1931, American inventor, b. Milan, Ohio. A genius in the practical application of scientific principles, Edison was one of the greatest and most productive inventors of his time, but his formal schooling was limited to three months in Port Huron,
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Eisenhower HS S Pa. 1969 690 (279) Home and farm of President Dwight D. EisenhowerEisenhower, Dwight David
, 1890–1969, American general and 34th President of the United States, b. Denison, Tex.; his nickname was "Ike." Early Career

When he was two years old, his family moved to Abilene, Kans., where he was reared.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Eleanor Roosevelt HS S N.Y. 1977 181 (73) Her personal retreat including two restored buildings, tennis court, rose garden, and playhouse.
Eugene O'Neill HS N Calif. 1976 13 (5) Restored home of the playwright.
Ford's Theatre HS Washington, D.C. 1970 .29 (.12) Site of President Abraham LincolnLincoln, Abraham
, 1809–65, 16th President of the United States (1861–65). Early Life

Born on Feb. 12, 1809, in a log cabin in backwoods Hardin co., Ky. (now Larue co.), he grew up on newly broken pioneer farms of the frontier.
..... Click the link for more information.
's assassination and death; includes the Lincoln Museum.
Fort Bowie HS SE Ariz. 1964 1,000 (405) Ruins of a fort (est. 1862) that was the base of military operations against GeronimoGeronimo
, c.1829–1909, leader of a Chiricahua group of the Apaches, b. Arizona. As a youth he participated in the forays of Cochise, Victorio, and other Apache leaders.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and his followers.
Fort Davis HS W Tex. 1961 474 (192) Key post in the defensive system of W Texas, guarding (1854–91) the San Antonio–El Paso road through the Davis Mts.
Fort Laramie HS SE Wyo. 1938 833 (337) Buildings of an old fort on the Oregon Trail.
Fort Larned HS Central Kansas 1964 718 (291) Protected the Santa Fe Trail; served as a military base during the Plains War (1860s) and later as an Indian Bureau administrative center.
Fort Point HS W Calif. 1970 29 (12) Brick and granite mid-19th-century coastal fortification.
Fort Raleigh HS NE N.C. 1941 513 (208) Site of the first attempted settlement by the English in North America. See Roanoke IslandRoanoke Island,
12 mi (19 km) long and 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, NE N.C., off the Atlantic coast between Croatan (W) and Roanoke (E) sounds in the Outer Banks. Manteo is the chief town, and tourism and fishing are the principal industries.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Fort Scott HS SE Kansas 1965 17 (7) Commemorates historic events in Kansas prior to and during the Civil War.
Fort Smith HS NW Ark. 1961 75 (30) One of the first U.S. military posts in the Louisiana Purchase; maintained law and order in the Oklahoma Territory. See Fort SmithFort Smith,
city (1990 pop. 72,798), seat of Sebastian co., NW Ark., at the Okla. line where the Arkansas and Poteau rivers join; inc. 1842. It is the rail, trade, and industrial center of a farm and livestock area.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Ark.
Fort Union Trading Post HS N.Dak., Mont. 1966 442 (179) American Fur Company trading post during the 19th cent.
Fort Vancouver HS SW Wash. 1948 209 (85) Site of a Hudson's Bay CompanyHudson's Bay Company,
corporation chartered (1670) by Charles II of England for the purpose of trade and settlement in the Hudson Bay region of North America and for exploration toward the discovery of the Northwest Passage to Asia.
..... Click the link for more information.
 post (1825–49) and later of a U.S. army fort.
Frederick Douglass HS Washington, D.C. 1962 9 (4) Home of the abolitionist and writer; contains original furnishings, photographs, lithographs, and his library.
Frederick Law Olmsted HS E Mass. 1979 7 (2.8) Site of Olmsted's home and business containing lithographs and original furnishings.
Friendship Hill HS SW Pa. 1978 675 (273) Home of Albert GallatinGallatin, Albert
, 1761–1849, American financier and public official, b. Geneva, Switzerland. Left an orphan at nine, Gallatin was reared by his patrician relatives and had an excellent education.
..... Click the link for more information.
, U.S. secretary of the treasury under Presidents Jefferson and Madison.
George Rogers Clark HP SW Ind. 1966 26 (11) Memorial near the site of old Fort Sackville, seized from the British by General G. R. ClarkClark, George Rogers,
1752–1818, American Revolutionary general, conqueror of the Old Northwest, b. near Charlottesville, Va.; brother of William Clark. A surveyor, he was interested in Western lands, served (1774) in Lord Dunmore's War (see Dunmore, John Murray, 4th earl
..... Click the link for more information.
 in 1779.
Golden Spike HS N Utah 1957 2,735 (1,108) Site where the Union Pacific RRUnion Pacific Railroad,
transportation company chartered (1862) by Congress to build part of the nation's first transcontinental railroad line. Under terms of the Pacific Railroads Act, the Union Pacific was authorized to build a line westward from Omaha, Nebr.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and the Central Pacific RR joined to form the first transcontinental railroad.
Grant-Kohrs Ranch HS W Mont. 1972 1,618 (655) Headquarters of one of the largest 19th-century range ranches.
Hampton HS NE Md. 1948 62 (25) Late-18th-century Georgian mansion.
Harpers Ferry HP Md., W.Va. 1944 2,343 (949) See Harpers FerryHarpers Ferry,
town (1990 pop. 308), Jefferson co., easternmost W Va., at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers; inc. 1763. The town is a tourist attraction, known for its history and its scenic beauty. John Brown's seizure of the U.S. arsenal there on Oct.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Harry S. Truman HS Mo. 1983 7 (3) Home of Harry S. TrumanTruman, Harry S.,
1884–1972, 33d President of the United States, b. Lamar, Mo. Early Life and Political Career

He grew up on a farm near Independence, Mo., worked at various jobs, and tended the family farm.
..... Click the link for more information.
 from 1919 until 1972.
Herbert Hoover HS E Iowa 1965 187 (76) Birthplace, childhood home, and burial place of President Herbert HooverHoover, Herbert Clark,
1874–1964, 31st President of the United States (1929–33), b. West Branch, Iowa. Wartime Relief Efforts

After graduating (1895) from Stanford, he worked as a mining engineer in many parts of the world.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt HS SE N.Y. 1944 349 (141) Home, "Summer White House," and burial place of Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt. See Hyde ParkHyde Park,
town (1990 pop. 21,230), Dutchess co., SE N.Y., on the Hudson River; settled c.1740. It is famous as the site of the Roosevelt estate, where President Franklin D. Roosevelt was born and is buried.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Hopewell Culture HP S Ohio 1923 1,245 (504) Prehistoric burial mounds of Hopewell people.
Hopewell Furnace HS SE Pa. 1938 848 (343) 19th-century iron-making site with reconstructed buildings and furnished cottages.
Hubbell Trading Post HS NE Ariz. 1965 160 (65) Example of a late-19th-century trading post in the Southwest.
Independence HP SE Pa. 1948 45 (18) Historic points of interest and the Liberty Bell; site of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. See Independence HallIndependence Hall,
historic building on Independence Square, downtown Philadelphia, in Independence National Historical Park. Originally constructed as the Pennsylvania colony's statehouse in 1732, the hall was the scene of the proclamation of the U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
James A. Garfield HS NE Ohio 1980 8 (3) Home of the 20th president and site of the first presidential memorial library.
Jean Lafitte HP SE La. 1939 20,020 (8,108) Includes New Orleans' French Quarter, the Chalmette Battlefield, and the Barataria and Acadian units.
Jimmy Carter HS SW Georgia 1987 71 (29) Buildings and exhibits associated with the 39th president's life.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy HS E Mass. 1967 .09 (.04) Birthplace and early boyhood home of President John F. Kennedy.
John Muir HS W Calif. 1964 345 (140) John Muir House and Martínez Adobe, commemorating contributions of John MuirMuir, John,
1838–1914, American naturalist, b. Dunbar, Scotland, studied at the Univ. of Wisconsin. He came to the United States in 1849 and settled in California in 1868.
..... Click the link for more information.
 to conservation and literature.
Kalaupapa HP N Molokai Island, Hawaii 1980 10,779 (4,365) Site of former leper colony separated from the island by 2,000-ft (610-m) cliff; there are ruins of 300 Hawaiian structures.
Kaloko-Honokohau HP Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1978 1,161 (470) Site of important pre-European settlements.
Keweenaw HP NW Mich. 1992 1,870 (757) Preserves features relevant to the first significant copper mining in the United States.
Klondike Gold Rush HP SW Alaska, NW Wa. 1976 13,191 (5,342) Sites connected with the 1898 KlondikeKlondike
, region of Yukon, NW Canada, just E of the Alaska border. It lies around Klondike River, a small stream that enters the Yukon River from the east at Dawson. The discovery in 1896 of rich placer gold deposits in Bonanza (Rabbit) Creek, a tributary of the Klondike,
..... Click the link for more information.
 gold rush including Seattle's Pioneer Square, the miners' point of departure.
Knife River Indian Villages HS Central N.Dak. 1974 1,758 (712) Ruins of villages of Hidasta and Mandan Native Americans.
Lewis and Clark HP NW Oreg., SW Wash. 1958 1,481 (599) Fort Clatsop, site of the winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark expeditionLewis and Clark expedition,
1803–6, U.S. expedition that explored the territory of the Louisiana Purchase and the country beyond as far as the Pacific Ocean. Purpose
..... Click the link for more information.
, and other sites associated with it. Jointly managed with nearby state historical parks.
Lincoln Home HS Central Ill. 1971 12 (5) Only private home owned by Abraham Lincoln; he was living there when he was elected president.
Little Rock Central High School HS Central Ark. 1998 18 (7) Site commemorating the "Little Rock Nine" and the fight for desegregation in the schools.
Longfellow HS E Mass. 1972 2 (.8) Home of Henry Wadsworth LongfellowLongfellow, Henry Wadsworth,
1807–82, American poet, b. Portland, Maine, grad. Bowdoin College, 1825. He wrote some of the most popular poems in American literature, in which he created a new body of romantic American legends.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1837–82) in Cambridge; also George Washington's headquarters during the siege of Boston (1775–76).
Lowell HP NE Mass. 1978 141 (57) Restored site of cotton mill traces the history of the Industrial Revolution.
Lyndon B. Johnson HP SE Tex. 1969 1,570 (636) Sites of the birthplace, boyhood home, and ranch of President Lyndon B. JohnsonJohnson, Lyndon Baines,
1908–73, 36th President of the United States (1963–69), b. near Stonewall, Tex. Early Life

Born into a farm family, he graduated (1930) from Southwest Texas State Teachers College (now Southwest Texas State Univ.), in San Marcos.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Maggie L. Walker HS E Central Va. 1978 1 (.4) Home of African-American bank president and early leader in the women's movement.
Manzanar HS E Calif. 1992 814 (330) Site of World War II internment of Japanese Americans. See relocation centerrelocation center,
in U.S. history, camp in which Japanese and Japanese-Americans were interned during World War II. Fearing a Japanese invasion, the military leaders, under authority of an executive order, defined (Mar.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Marsh-Billings HP Vt. 1992 643 (260) Home of pioneer conservationist George Perkins Marsh.
Martin Luther King, Jr. HS N Ga. 1980 39 (16) Birthplace, church, and grave of the civil-rights leader.
Martin Van Buren HS SE N.Y. 1974 40 (16) Home of the 8th president.
Mary McLeod Bethune Council House HS Washington, D.C. 1982 .07 (.03) Home and political headquarters of the educator and activist; the carriage house contains the Bethune Archives.
Minute Man HP E Mass. 1959 965 (391) Scene of fighting on the opening day of the Revolutionary War; includes North Bridge, Minute Man statue, Battle Road (see Lexington and Concord, battles ofLexington and Concord, battles of,
opening engagements of the American Revolution, Apr. 19, 1775. After the passage (1774) of the Intolerable Acts by the British Parliament, unrest in the colonies increased. The British commander at Boston, Gen.
..... Click the link for more information.
), and the home of Nathaniel HawthorneHawthorne, Nathaniel,
1804–64, American novelist and short-story writer, b. Salem, Mass., one of the great masters of American fiction. His novels and tales are penetrating explorations of moral and spiritual conflicts.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Morristown HP N N.J. 1933 1,698 (687) Site of military encampments during the Revolution; Washington's headquarters, 1779–80.
Natchez HP SW Miss. 1988 108 (44) Melrose plantation and other antebellum buildings.
New Bedford Whaling HP SE Mass. 1996 34 (14) Commemorates the whaling heritage of New Bedford; includes a whaling museum.
New Orleans Jazz HP SE La. 1994 Preserves and interprets jazz as it has evolved in New Orleans.
Nez Percé HP Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash. 1965 2,123 (860) 38 sites that preserve and commemorate the history and culture of the Nez Percé.
Nicodemus HS NW Kansas 1996 161 (65) Site of town established by African Americans during Reconstruction.
Ninety Six HS NW S.C. 1976 989 (401) A frontier trading post and Revolutionary War stronghold.
Palo Alto Battlefield HS S Tex. 1978 3,357 (1,360) Site of the first major battle of the Mexican War.
Pecos HP N N.Mex. 1965 6,671 (2,702) 15th-century ruins of Pecos Pueblo, once the largest Native American settlement in the Southwest.
Pennsylvania Avenue HS Washington, D.C. 1965 Portion of Pennsylvania Ave. and adjacent area between the Capitol and the White House.
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau HP SW Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1955 182 (74) Ancient Hawaiian sanctuary and royal residence.
Puukohola Heiau HS Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1972 86 (35) Ruins of temple built (1791) by King Kamehameha the Great.
Sagamore Hill HS SE N.Y. 1962 83 (34) Estate and Victorian-style home of President Theodore RooseveltRoosevelt, Theodore,
1858–1919, 26th President of the United States (1901–9), b. New York City. Early Life and Political Posts

Of a prosperous and distinguished family, Theodore Roosevelt was educated by private tutors and traveled widely.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Saint Croix Island IS E Maine 1949 45 (18) Commemorates the French settlement on the island in the Saint CroixSaint Croix.
1 River, 75 mi (121 km) long, rising in the Chiputneticook Lakes and flowing SE to Passamaquoddy Bay, forming part of the U.S.-Canada border; navigable to Calais, Maine. The river is used for power and to float logs downstream.
..... Click the link for more information.
 River.
Saint-Gaudens HS W N.H. 1964 148 (60) Memorial to the American sculptor Augustus Saint-GaudensSaint-Gaudens, Augustus
, 1848–1907, American sculptor, b. Dublin, Ireland. His family immigrated to New York when he was an infant. An apprentice in cameo cutting at 13, he gained mastery over low-relief sculpture.
..... Click the link for more information.
; contains his home studios, gardens.
Saint Paul's Church HS SE N.Y. 1943 6 (2) 18th-century church associated with the events leading to the arrest of John Peter ZengerZenger, John Peter
, 1697–1746, American journalist, b. Germany. He emigrated to America in 1710 and was trained in the printing trade by the pioneer printer William Bradford.
..... Click the link for more information.
; includes Bill of Rights museum.
Salem Maritime HS NE Mass. 1938 9 (4) Wharves and buildings important during Salem's seafaring days.
Salt River Bay HP Virgin Islands, on St. Croix 1992 945 (383) Fort Sale; upland watersheds, mangrove forests, estuarine and marine environments.
San Antonio Missions HP S central Tex. 1978 819 (332) Four missions situated on the San Antonio River; important examples of Spanish cultural influence.
San Francisco Maritime HP N Calif. 1988 50 (20) Largest collection of historic ships in the United States; exhibits on maritime history.
San Juan HS NE Puerto Rico 1949 75 (30) Oldest fortification within the limits of U.S. territory, built (16th cent.) by the Spanish to protect the harbor guarding the sea lanes to the New World.
San Juan Island HP NW Wash. 1966 1,752 (710) Dedicated to the peaceful relationship between the United States, Britain, and Canada since the San Juan Boundary DisputeSan Juan Boundary Dispute,
controversy between the United States and Great Britain over the U.S.–British Columbia boundary. It is sometimes called the Northwest Boundary Dispute.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Saratoga HP E N.Y. 1938 3,392 (1,373) Scene of a famous battle in the American Revolution. See Saratoga campaignSaratoga campaign,
June–Oct., 1777, of the American Revolution. Lord George Germain and John Burgoyne were the chief authors of a plan to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Saugus Iron Works HS E Mass. 1968 9 (4) Reconstruction of the 17th-century Colonial ironworks.
Sitka HP SE Alaska 1910 107 (43) Site of the Tlingit peoples' defeat by Russian settlers in 1804. See SitkaSitka
, city (1990 pop. 8,588), Sitka census div., SE Alaska, in the Alexander Archipelago, on Baranof Island; inc. 1971. Fishing, its first industry, remains important; salmon, halibut, red snapper, crab, herring, abalone, and clams are caught.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Springfield Armory HS Mass. 1974 55 (22) Large weapons museum housed in former arsenal.
Steamtown HS NE Pa. 1986 62 (25) A railyard containing America's largest collection of steam-era locomotives and railroad cars.
Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace HS SE N.Y. 1962 .11 (.04) Birthplace and boyhood home of President Theodore RooseveltRoosevelt, Theodore,
1858–1919, 26th President of the United States (1901–9), b. New York City. Early Life and Political Posts

Of a prosperous and distinguished family, Theodore Roosevelt was educated by private tutors and traveled widely.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural HS W N.Y. 1966 1 (.4) Ansley Wilcox House, where Theodore Roosevelt took the oath of office (1901) as president.
Thomas Stone HS S Md. 1978 328 (133) Georgian-style home, Habre-de-Ventre, of a signatory of the Declaration of Independence.
Tumacacori HP S Ariz. 1908 46 (19) Mission founded by Father Eusebio F. KinoKino, Eusebio Francisco
, c.1644–1711, missionary explorer in the American Southwest, b. Segno, in the Tyrol. He was in 1669 admitted to the Jesuit order. A distinguished mathematician, he observed the comet of 1680–81 at Cádiz, publishing his results in his
..... Click the link for more information.
; rebuilt by the Franciscans.
Tuskegee Airmen HS SE Ala. 1999 90 (36) Site commemorating the African-American Tuskegee Airmen of World War II.
Tuskegee Institute HS S Ala. 1974 58 (23) First institution of higher learning for the vocational training of African Americans; founded in 1881.
Ulysses S. Grant HS Missouri 1989 10 (4) Pre–Civil War home of Ulysses S. Grant.
Valley Forge HP SE Pa. 1976 3,466 (1,404) Soldiers' huts and preserved buildings re-create the 1777–78 encampment of the Continental Army.
Vanderbilt Mansion HS E N.Y. 1940 212 (86) 19th-century palatial Victorian residence of a grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt.
War in the Pacific HP Central Guam 1978 2,031 (822) Artifacts of World War II in the Pacific theater.
Washita Battlefield HS Okla. 1848 315 (128) Site of a Southern Cheyenne village attacked by General Custer on Nov. 27, 1868.
Weir Farm HS Conn. 1990 74 (30) Home and studio of the American impressionist painter J. Alden Weir.
Whitman Mission HS SW Wash. 1936 98 (40) Site of the mission of Dr. Marcus WhitmanWhitman, Marcus,
1802–47, American pioneer and missionary in the Oregon country, b. Federal Hollow (later Rushville), N.Y. In 1836 he left a country medical practice to go West as a missionary for the joint Presbyterian-Congregationalist board.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
William Howard Taft HS SW Ohio 1969 3 (1) Birthplace and early home of President William Howard TaftTaft, William Howard,
1857–1930, 27th President of the United States (1909–13) and 10th chief justice of the United States (1921–30), b. Cincinnati. Early Career

After graduating (1878) from Yale, he attended Cincinnati Law School.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Women's Rights HP W N.Y. 1980 6 (2) Includes Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, site of first women's rights convention (1848), and the home of Elizabeth Cady StantonStanton, Elizabeth Cady,
1815–1902, American reformer, a leader of the woman-suffrage movement, b. Johnstown, N.Y. She was educated at the Troy Female Seminary (now Emma Willard School) in Troy, N.Y.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

National Memorials
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Arkansas Post MM SE Ark. 1960 747 (302) Site of the first permanent French settlement in the lower Mississippi valley. See Arkansas PostArkansas Post
, community on the Arkansas River, SE Ark. Founded by the French in 1686 as a trading post, it is the oldest white settlement in the state; it became the capital of the Arkansas territory in 1819.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial MM NE Va. 1925 28 (11) Former home of the Custis and Lee families; memorial to Robert E. LeeLee, Robert Edward,
1807–70, general in chief of the Confederate armies in the American Civil War, b. Jan. 19, 1807, at Stratford, Westmoreland co., Va.; son of Henry ("Light-Horse Harry") Lee.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Chamizal MM W Tex. 1966 55 (22) Memorializes the peaceful settlement of the 99-year border dispute between the United States and Mexico.
Coronado MM SE Ariz. 1952 4,750 (1,924) Area near Francisco Vásquez de CoronadoCoronado, Francisco Vásquez de
, c.1510–1554, Spanish explorer. He went to Mexico with Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and in 1538 was made governor of Nueva Galicia.
..... Click the link for more information.
's point of entry (1540) into the United States.
De Soto MM W Fla. 1948 27 (11) Commemorates the landing (1539) of Hernando De SotoDe Soto, Hernando
, c.1500–1542, Spanish explorer. After serving under Pedro Arias de Ávila in Central America and under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, the dashing young conquistador was made governor of Cuba by Emperor Charles V, with the right to conquer Florida
..... Click the link for more information.
 in Florida and his exploration of the S United States.
Federal Hall MM SE N.Y. 1939 .45 (.18) Site of the first seat of the federal government and George WashingtonWashington, George,
1732–99, 1st President of the United States (1789–97), commander in chief of the Continental army in the American Revolution, called the Father of His Country. Early Life

He was born on Feb. 22, 1732 (Feb. 11, 1731, O.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
's inauguration (1789).
Fort Caroline MM NE Fla. 1950 138 (56) Area overlooking the site of Fort CarolineFort Caroline,
settlement near the mouth of the St. Johns River, NE Fla.; est. 1564 by French Huguenots under René de Laudonnière. A Spanish force led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés attacked the fort in 1565, killed most of the colonists, and renamed the
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1997 8 (3) Monument to Roosevelt on the Mall in the nation's capital.
General Grant MM SE N.Y. 1958 .76 (.31) Tomb of President Ulysses S. GrantGrant, Ulysses Simpson,
1822–85, commander in chief of the Union army in the Civil War and 18th President (1869–77) of the United States, b. Point Pleasant, Ohio. He was originally named Hiram Ulysses Grant.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and his wife, Julia.
Hamilton Grange MM SE N.Y. 1962 .11 (.04) Home of Alexander HamiltonHamilton, Alexander,
1755–1804, American statesman, b. Nevis, in the West Indies. Early Career

He was the illegitimate son of James Hamilton (of a prominent Scottish family) and Rachel Faucett Lavien (daughter of a doctor-planter on Nevis and the estranged
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial MM E Mo. 1935 193 (78) Area commemorating westward exploration and settlement; includes Gateway Arch. See Saint LouisSaint Louis
, city (1990 pop. 396,685), independent and in no county, E Mo., on the Mississippi River below the mouth of the Missouri; inc. as a city 1822. St. Louis has long been a major industrial and transportation hub.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Mo.
Johnstown Flood MM SE Pa. 1964 164 (66) Memorializes the Johnstown flood of 1889. See JohnstownJohnstown.
1 City (1990 pop. 9,058), seat of Fulton co., E central N.Y.; founded 1772, inc. 1895. Its leather-glove industry dates back to 1800; other leather and knitted goods are also made. Johnson Hall was built by the city's founder, Sir William Johnson.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pa.
Korean War Veterans Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1986 2 (.8) Grouping of 19 infantry soldiers standing before a polished granite wall.
Lincoln Boyhood MM SW Ind. 1962 200 (81) Site of the farm where Abraham Lincoln was raised and the burial place of his mother, Mary Hanks Lincoln.
Lincoln Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1911 107 (45) See Lincoln MemorialLincoln Memorial,
monument, 107 acres (45 hectares), in Potomac Park, Washington, D.C.; built 1914–17. The building, designed by Henry Bacon and styled after a Greek temple, has 36 Doric columns representing the states of the Union at the time of Lincoln's death.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac MM NE Va. 1973 17 (7) Grove of 500 white pines overlooking Potomac River vista of the capital.
Mount Rushmore MM SW S.Dak. 1925 1,278 (518) Carvings of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt on the granite face of Mt. Rushmore.
Oklahoma City MM Okla. 1997 6 (2) Site honoring the rescuers and victims killed in the Apr. 19, 1995, bombing of the Federal Building.
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial MM N Ohio 1936 25 (10) Scene of the victory near Put-in Bay of Oliver H. PerryPerry, Oliver Hazard,
1785–1819, American naval officer, b. South Kingstown, R.I.; brother of Matthew Calbraith Perry. Appointed a midshipman in 1799, he served in the Tripolitan War, was promoted to lieutenant (1807), and from 1807 to 1809 was engaged in building gunboats.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in the War of 1812.
Roger Williams MM E R.I. 1965 5 (2) Memorial to Roger WilliamsWilliams, Roger,
c.1603–1683, clergyman, advocate of religious freedom, founder of Rhode Island, b. London. A protégé of Sir Edward Coke, he graduated from Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1627 and took Anglican orders.
..... Click the link for more information.
, the founder of the Rhode Island colony and a pioneer of religious freedom.
Thaddeus Kosciuszko MM SE Pa. 1972 .02 (.01) Commemorates the life and work of Thaddeus KosciuskoKosciusko or Kosciuszko, Thaddeus
, Pol. Tadeusz Andrzej Bonawentura Košciuszko, 1746–1817, Polish general.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Thomas Jefferson MM Washington, D.C. 1934 18 (7) See Thomas Jefferson MemorialThomas Jefferson Memorial,
monument, 18 acres (7 hectares), in East Potomac Park, on the Tidal Basin, Washington, D.C.; authorized by Congress 1934, built 1938–43, dedicated 1943.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
USS Arizona Memorial MM S Honolulu, Hawaii 1980 A memorial to American losses at Pearl HarborPearl Harbor,
land-locked harbor, on the southern coast of Oahu island, Hawaii, W of Honolulu; one of the largest and best natural harbors in the E Pacific Ocean. In the vicinity are many U.S. military installations, including the chief U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1980 2 (.8) See Vietnam Veterans MemorialVietnam Veterans Memorial,
war memorial in Washington, D.C., built 1982. Designed by the American sculptor and architect Maya Ying Lin, it is a sloping, V-shaped, 493-ft (150-m) wall of highly polished black granite that descends 10 feet (3.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Washington Monument MM Washington, D.C. 1848 106 (43) 555-ft (169-m) high obelisk honoring Washington.
Wright Brothers MM NE N.C. 1927 428 (173) Scene of the first (1903) successful flight of the Wright brothersWright brothers,
American airplane inventors and aviation pioneers. Orville Wright 1871–1948, was born in Dayton, Ohio, and Wilbur Wright, 1867–1912, near New Castle, Ind.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

National Battlefields, Battlefield Parks, Battlefield Sites, and Military Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Antietam BF Central Md. 1890 3,223 (1,305) See Antietam campaignAntietam campaign
, Sept., 1862, of the Civil War. After the second battle of Bull Run, Gen. Robert E. Lee crossed the Potomac to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania. At Frederick, Md., he divided (Sept.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Antietam (Sharpsburg) National Cemetery adjoins the park.
Big Hole BF SW Mont. 1910 656 (266) Scene of 1877 battle between U.S. troops and Nez Percé led by Chief Joseph.
Brices Cross Roads BS NE Miss. 1929 1 (.4) Site of a rout of Union troops by Confederate cavalry under General N. B. Forrest (June 10, 1864).
Chickamauga and Chattanooga MP Ga., Tenn. 1890 8,129 (3,291) Civil War battle sites; first national military park.
Cowpens BF NW S.C. 1929 932 (377) Site of an American militia victory over British infantry and cavalry forces in the Revolutionary War battle of Cowpens (Jan. 17, 1781).
Fort Donelson BF NW Tenn. 1928 552 (224) Site of first Union Army victory; Civil War cemetery.
Fort Necessity BF SW Pa. 1931 903 (366) George Washington's troops defeated here in 1754.
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial MP NE Va. 1927 7,924 (3,208) Contains portions of four major Civil War battlefields (see Fredericksburg, battle ofFredericksburg, battle of,
in the Civil War, fought Dec. 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. In Nov., 1862, the Union general Ambrose Burnside moved his three "grand divisions" under W. B. Franklin, E. V.
..... Click the link for more information.
) and a national cemetery.
Gettysburg MP S Pa. 1895 5,984 (2,423) Civil War battlefield and cemetery; site of President Lincoln's Gettysburg AddressGettysburg Address,
speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln on Nov. 19, 1863, at the dedication of the national cemetery on the Civil War battlefield of Gettysburg, Pa. It is one of the most famous and most quoted of modern speeches.
..... Click the link for more information.
. See GettysburgGettysburg
, borough (1990 pop. 7,025), seat of Adams co., S Pa.; inc. 1806. There is agriculture and the production of furniture and metal goods. Gettysburg was settled c.1780 and is named for Gen. James Gettys, to whom its site was granted (17th cent.) by William Penn.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Pa.
Guilford Courthouse MP N N.C. 1917 223 (90) See Guilford Courthouse, battle ofGuilford Courthouse, battle of,
in the Carolina campaign of the American Revolution, fought Mar. 15, 1781. The site is included in a national military park near Greensboro, N.C. (see National Parks and Monuments, table).
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Horseshoe Bend MP E Ala. 1956 2,040 (826) See Horseshoe BendHorseshoe Bend,
a turn on the Tallapoosa River, near Dadeville, E central Ala., site of a battle on Mar. 27, 1814, in which the Creeks, led by chief William Weatherford, were significantly defeated by a militia under the command of Andrew Jackson.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Kennesaw Mountain BP NW Ga. 1917 2,884 (1,168) Site of Sherman's attack on the Confederate forces in the Atlanta campaignAtlanta campaign,
May–Sept., 1864, of the U.S. Civil War. In the spring of 1864, Gen. W. T. Sherman concentrated the Union armies of G. H. Thomas, J. B. McPherson, and J. M. Schofield around Chattanooga.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Kings Mountain MP N S.C. 1931 3,945 (1,598) Site of a crucial American victory (Oct. 7, 1780) over the British during the Revolution.
Manassas BP NE Va. 1940 5,072 (2,054) See Bull RunBull Run,
small stream, NE Va., c.30 mi (50 km) SW of Washington, D.C. Two important battles of the Civil War were fought there: the first on July 21, 1861, and the second Aug. 29–30, 1862. Both battlefields are included in Manassas National Battlefield Park (est. 1940).
..... Click the link for more information.
.
Monocacy BF W Md. 1976 1,647 (667) Site commemorates the first successful defense of Washington, D.C. during the Civil War.
Moores Creek BF SE N.C. 1926 88 (36) Site of a battle between Patriots and Loyalists.
Pea Ridge MP NW Ark. 1956 4,300 (1,742) Site of the Civil War battle of Pea RidgePea Ridge,
chain of hills, NW Ark., where the Civil War battle of Pea Ridge (or Elkhorn Tavern) was fought Mar. 6–8, 1862. Earl Van Dorn, leading a large Confederate command, which included Sterling Price's retreating Missouri forces and Ben McCulloch's army, attacked the
..... Click the link for more information.
, which saved Missouri for the Union.
Petersburg BF SE Va. 1926 2,659 (1,077) Scene of the Battle of the Crater and a 10-month Union campaign (1864–65) to seize PetersburgPetersburg,
city (1990 pop. 38,386), politically independent and in no county, SE Va., on the Appomattox River; inc. 1850. A port of entry and an important tobacco market, it has industries producing chemicals, pharmaceuticals, furniture, structural steel, lumber, paper goods,
..... Click the link for more information.
, Va.
Richmond BP E Va. 1936 1,718 (696) Commemorates Civil War battles of Cold Harbor, Drewry's Bluff, Gaines Mill, Malvern Hill, and Beaver Dam Creek.
Shiloh MP SW Tenn. 1894 3,973 (1,609) Site of the Civil War battle of ShilohShiloh, battle of,
Apr. 6–7, 1862, one of the great battles of the American Civil War. The battle took its name from Shiloh Church, a meetinghouse c.3 mi (5 km) SSW of Pittsburg Landing, which was a community in Hardin co., Tenn., 9 mi (14.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Shiloh National Cemetery is there.
Stones River BF Central Tenn. 1927 713 (289) See MurfreesboroMurfreesboro
, city (1990 pop. 44,922), seat of Rutherford co., central Tenn., on Stones River; inc. 1817. It is the processing center of a dairy, livestock, and farm area. Manufactures include appliance motors, packaged foods, boats, and outdoor furniture.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Tenn. Site of Stones River National Cemetery.
Tupelo BF NE Miss. 1929 1 (.4) See TupeloTupelo
, city (1990 pop. 30,685), seat of Lee co., NE Miss.; founded 1859, inc. 1870. It is the trade, processing, and shipping center for a cotton, grain, dairying, and livestock area. Once important for timber, the city is named after the tupelo, or black gum, tree.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Miss.
Vicksburg MP W Miss. 1899 1,740 (704) Site of the Vicksburg campaignVicksburg campaign,
in the American Civil War, the fighting (Nov., 1862–July, 1863) for control of the Mississippi River. The Union wanted such control in order to split the Confederacy and to restore free commerce to the politically important Northwest.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of the Civil War and Vicksburg National Cemetery.
Wilson's Creek BF Missouri 1960 1,750 (709) Site of first major Civil War engagement west of the Mississippi.

National Preserves and Reserves
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Bering Land Bridge PS NW Alaska 1978 2,697,639 (1,092,162) Remnant of land bridge that connected Alaska with Asia.
Big Cypress PA S Fla. 1974 720,570 (291,729) Subtropical plant and animal life; ancestral home of Seminole and Miccosukee peoples.
Big Thicket PS SE Tex. 1974 97,191 (39,349) Large number of plant and animal species.
City of Rocks NR Idaho 1988 14,107 (5,711) Granite spires, sculptured rock formations.
Ebey's Landing NR Whidbey Island, Wash. 1978 19,000 (7,695) Records exploration and settlement of Puget Sound.
Little River Canyon PS NE Ala. 1992 13,633 (5,519) Rock expanses, benches, and bluffs; kayaking and rock climbing.
Mojave PS S Calif. 1994 1,508,045 (610,545) Dunes, cinder cones, historic mining scenes; protects fragile habitat of the desert tortoise.
Noatak PS Alaska 1978 6,569,904 (2,660,811) Mountain-ringed river basin.
Tallgrass Prairie PS E Kansas 1996 10,894 (4,411) Preserve protecting surviving remnant of the tallgrass ecosystem.
Timucan Ecological and Historic Preserve PS Fla. 1988 46,019 (18,631) Atlantic coastal marshes, islands, tidal creeks.
Yukon-Charley Rivers PS E central Alaska 1978 2,526,512 (1,022,879) Peregrine falcons, 1898 Gold Rush relics.

National Recreation Areas
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Amistad RA S Tex. 1965 58,500 (23,693) U.S. part of Amistad Reservoir, on the Rio Grande.
Bighorn Canyon RA Mont., Wyo. 1966 120,296 (48,720) Yellowtail Dam and spectacular Bighorn Canyon, on the BighornBighorn,
river, 461 mi (741 km) long, formed in W central Wyo. by the confluence of the Wind and Pop Agie rivers and flowing north to join the Yellowstone River in S Mont.
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 River.
Boston Harbor Islands RA E Mass. 1996 1,482 (600) More than 30 islands off the Greater Boston coast.
Chattahoochie River RA Georgia 1978 9,260 (3,750) Series of historic and recreational sites along the Chattahoochie River.
Chickasaw RA S Okla. 1976 9,889 (4,005) Mineral springs, streams, and lakes. Name honors Chickasaw Nation; combination of former Platt National Park and Arbuckle National Recreation Area.
Curecanti RA E Colo. 1965 41,972 (16,993) Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal reservoirs in the upper Black Canyon of the Gunnison.
Delaware Water Gap RA N.J., Pa. 1965 66,756 (27,027) Scenic Delaware Water GapDelaware Water Gap
, scenic gorge, 2 mi (3.2 km) long, cut by the Delaware River through Kittatinny Mt., on the N.J.–Pa. line; located in a mountain resort area around Stroudsburg, Pa. The gap, parts of wooded Kittatinny Mt., several islands, and c.
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.
Gateway RA N.Y., N.J. 1972 26,610 (10,773) Beaches, marshes, islands, and waters in and around New York City. One of the first two national urban recreation areas.
Gauley River RA W Va. 1988 11,342 (4,592) Passes through scenic valleys and gorges; whitewater boating.
Glen Canyon RA Ariz., Utah 1958 1,254,306 (507,816) Lake Powell, formed by the Glen Canyon DamGlen Canyon Dam,
710 ft (216 m) high, 1,560 ft (475 m) long, NE Ariz., on the Colorado River. The key unit of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Colorado River storage project, it is one of the world's largest concrete dams (larger in bulk, though not in height, than Hoover Dam).
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.
Golden Gate RA W Calif. 1972 73,688 (29,833) Beaches, forests, marshes, San Francisco's Presidio, and AlcatrazAlcatraz
[Sp. Álcatraces=pelicans], rocky island in San Francisco Bay, W Calif, about one mile (1.61 km) north of San Francisco. Alcatraz was first sighted by the Spanish in 1772 (and possibly three years earlier).
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 Island. One of the first two national urban recreation areas.
Lake Chelan RA N Wash. 1968 61,958 (25,084) Located in the Stehekin Valley and in the northern part of fjordlike Lake ChelanChelan, Lake
, 55 mi (89 km) long and from 1 to 2 mi (1.6–3.2 km) wide, located in a deep narrow gorge in the Cascade Range, NW Wash.; third-deepest freshwater lake in the United States.
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.
Lake Mead RA Ariz., Nev. 1936 1,495,666 (605,745) Lake MeadMead, Lake,
247 sq mi (640 sq km), on the Nev.-Ariz. border, formed by Hoover Dam across the Colorado River. The lake is 115 mi (185 km) long, from 1 to 8 mi (1.6–12.
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, formed by Hoover Dam, and Lake Mohave, formed by Davis Dam; the first national recreation area established by Congress.
Lake Meredith RA NW Tex. 1965 44,978 (18,216) Includes Lake Meredith, on the Canadian River, a popular water-sports area.
Lake Roosevelt RA NE Wash. 1946 100,390 (40,658) Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, formed by the Grand Coulee DamGrand Coulee Dam
, 550 ft (168 m) high and 4,173 ft (1,272 m) long, on the Columbia River, N central Wash., NW of Spokane; built 1933–42 as a key unit in the Columbia basin project of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
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 in the Columbia River; interesting geology.
Ross Lake RA N Wash. 1968 117,575 (47,618) Extends along the Skagit River canyon; bisects North Cascades National Park.
Santa Monica Mountains RA SW Calif. 1978 153,824 (62,277) Rugged, chaparral-covered landscape fronting on sandy beaches.
Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity RA N Calif. 1965 42,503 (17,214) Reservoirs, forestland, and Whiskeytown Falls; the National Park Service runs the Whiskeytown unit, and the Forest Service administers the Shasta and Trinity units.

National Rivers
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Alagnak WS SW Alaska 1980 30,665 (12,415) White water and salmon fishing.
Big South Fork RR Ky., Tenn. 1976 125,242 (50,705) Scenic gorges and valleys.
Bluestone WS SW W.Va. 1988 4,310 (1,745) Fishing, hiking, boating, and scenery.
Buffalo RI NW Ark. 1972 94,292 (38,175) 136-mi (219-km) stretch of the Buffalo River and its valley; the first national river.
Delaware WS N.J.-Pa. 1978 1,973 (799) Swimming, boating, and fishing on Delaware River through the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.
Great Egg Harbor WS SW N.J. 1992 129 mi (208 km) long; largest canoeing river in the Pine Barrens.
Lower St. Croix WS E Minn., NW Wis. 1972 25,279 (10,234) First river segment added by Congress to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Program.
Mississippi River RR Minn. 1988 53,775 (21,779) Cultural, historical, and industrial features of the Mississippi River.
Missouri WS S.Dak. to Neb. 1978 Two free-flowing portions of Missouri River with islands, bars, and chutes; native floodplain forest.
New River Gorge RI W Va. 1978 69,834 (28,273) Rugged whitewater river flows through deep canyons.
Niobrara WS N Nebr. 1991 Ecological crossroads between eastern woodlands and western grasslands.
Obed WS E Tenn. 1976 5,173 (2,094) Numerous streams and rugged scenery.
Ozark WS Mo. 1964 80,786 (32,707) Scenic parts of the Current and Jacks Fork rivers; the first national scenic river.
Rio Grande WS S Tex. 1978 9,600 (3,888) 191-mi (307-km) strip of land on the U.S. shore of the Rio Grande in the Chihuahuan Desert.
Saint Croix WS Minn., Wis. 1968 67,483 (27,321) 200 mi (322 km) of the St. Croix River and its Namekagon tributary; trails, camping, boating.
Upper Delaware WS Pa., N.Y. 1978 75,005 (30,366) Fishing and boating.

National Lakeshores and Seashores
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Apostle Islands LS NW Wis. 1970 69,372 (28,096) Apostle IslandsApostle Islands,
group of more than 20 wooded islands, in Lake Superior, off N Wis. Madeline, 13 mi (21 km) long, is the largest island and has the group's only settlement, La Pointe.
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 and a strip of the Bayfield Peninsula, on the south shore of Lake Superior.
Assateague Island SS Md., Va. 1965 39,723 (16,082) 37-mi (60-km) barrier island; beaches; wildlife refuge including wild ponies.
Canaveral SS E Fla. 1975 57,662 (23,353) Barrier island dunes and marshland that includes a wildlife refuge.
Cape Cod SS SE Mass. 1961 43,685 (17,686) See Cape CodCape Cod,
narrow peninsula of glacial origin, 399 sq mi (1,033 sq km), SE Mass., extending 65 mi (105 km) E and N into the Atlantic Ocean. It is generally flat, with sand dunes, low hills, and numerous lakes.
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.
Cape Hatteras SS E N.C. 1937 30,321 (12,276) The first national seashore. See under Hatteras, CapeHatteras, Cape
, promontory on Hatteras Island, a low, sandy, barrier bar between the Atlantic Ocean and Pamlico Sound, E N.C. Called the Graveyard of the Atlantic, the cape experiences frequent storms that drive ships landward toward its dangerous shallow depths.
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.
Cape Lookout SS E N.C. 1966 28,243 (11,438) Three barrier islands with beaches, sand dunes, and salt marshes; Cape Lookout Lighthouse.
Cumberland Island SS SE Ga. 1972 36,415 (14,748) Largest island off Georgia; beaches, sand dunes, marshes, and lakes.
Fire Island SS SE N.Y. 1964 19,579 (7,929) Covers section of Fire IslandFire Island,
barrier beach, 32 mi (52 km) long, off the south shore of Long Island, SE N.Y., separating Great South Bay from the Atlantic Ocean. Robert Moses State Park is at its west end.
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.
Gulf Islands SS Fla., Miss. 1971 137,458 (55,651) Historic forts and white sand beaches near Pensacola, Fla.; Fort Massachusetts and primitive offshore islands in S Miss.
Indiana Dunes LS NW Ind. 1966 15,138 (6,129) 200-ft (60-m) sand dunes, beaches, and marshes along the south shore of Lake Michigan.
Padre Island SS S Tex. 1962 130,434 (52,826) See Padre IslandPadre Island
, low, sandy island, c.115 mi (185 km) long, less than 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, S Tex. It is characterized by large, irregular sand dunes, sparse vegetation, and a strong prevailing wind off the Gulf of Mexico.
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, Tex.
Pictured Rocks LS N Mich. 1966 73,228 (29,657) Sandstone cliffs, marshes, dunes, and waterfalls along Lake Superior; the first national lakeshore.
Point Reyes SS W Calif. 1962 71,068 (28,772) Coastal area with beaches and steep bluffs.
Sleeping Bear Dunes LS W central Mich. 1970 71,196 (28,824) Section of the Lake Michigan shoreline and the North and South Manitoulin islands; beaches, sand dunes, forests.

Other Areas
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Appalachian ST Maine, N.H., Vt., Mass., Conn., N.Y., N.J., Pa., Md., W.Va., Va., Tenn., N.C., Ga. 1968 214,528 (86,853) See Appalachian TrailAppalachian Trail,
officially Appalachian National Scenic Trail,
hiking path, 2,144 mi (3,450 km) long, passing through 14 states, E United States. Conceived in 1921 by Benton MacKaye, forester and regional planner, and completed in 1937, the trail extends along the
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.
Blue Ridge PW Va., N.C. 1936 88,689 (35,906) Scenic route in the Blue RidgeBlue Ridge,
eastern range of the Appalachian Mts., extending south from S Pa. to N Ga.; highest mountains in the E United States. Mt. Mitchell, 6,684 ft (2,037 m) high, is the tallest peak. Beginning with a narrow ridge in the north, c.
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 Mts. between Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mts. national parks; many roadside parks, lookouts, and trails; the first national parkway.
California HT Missouri River to Calif. and Oreg. 1992 Former migration route extending 5,600 mi (9,010 km) from the Missouri River to California and Oregon.
Catoctin Mountain Park PO NW Md. 1936 5,770 (2,337) Campgrounds, trails, and scenic drive located in the Catoctin Mts.; Camp David, the presidential retreat, is there.
Constitution Gardens PO Washington, D.C. 1978 52 (21) Memorial to the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
Continental Divide ST Mont., Idaho, Wyo., Colo., N.Mex. 1978 3,200 (1,296) Runs the length of the Rocky Mountains.
Florida ST S Fla. 1983 Subtropical plant and animal life along 1,300-mi (2,092-km) trail.
Fort Washington Park PO Washington, D.C. 1930 341 (138) 19th-century fort.
George Washington Memorial Parkway PW Va., D.C., Md. 1930 7,248 (2,935) Parkway connecting landmarks associated with the life of George Washington along both sides of the Potomac River from Mt. Vernon to Great Falls.
Greenbelt PO N Md. 1950 1,176 (476) Woodland park.
Ice Age ST S Wis. 1980 100-mi (161-km) trail follows glacial moraines.
Iditarod HT Alaska 1978 Former Alaska Gold Rush trail extending 2,350 mi (3,781 km) from Seward to Nome.
John D. Rockefeller, Jr. PW NW Wyo. 1972 23,777 (9,622) Scenic corridor between Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks commemorating Rockefeller's role in the creation of many national parks.
Juan Bautista de Anza HT W Calif. 1990 1,200-mi (1,931-km) trail traces the path of Spanish colonists.
Lewis and Clark HT Mo., Neb., S.Dak., N.Dak., Mont., Idaho, Oreg. 1978 3,700-mi (5,953-km) historic trail commemorates the Lewis and Clark expeditionLewis and Clark expedition,
1803–6, U.S. expedition that explored the territory of the Louisiana Purchase and the country beyond as far as the Pacific Ocean. Purpose
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.
Mormon Pioneer HT Ill., Mo., Kans., Colo., Utah 1978 Historic trail follows the route taken by Brigham Young and his followers in 1847–48.
Natchez Trace ST Miss., Tenn. 1983 10,995 (4,453) Trail extends from Nashville, Tenn., to Natchez, Miss.
Natchez Trace PW Miss., Ala., Tenn. 1938 51,748 (20,958) Parkway following the general location of the old trail known as the Natchez TraceNatchez Trace,
road, from Natchez, Miss., to Nashville, Tenn., of great commercial and military importance from the 1780s to the 1830s. It grew from a series of Native American trails used in the 18th cent. by the French, English, and Spanish.
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.
National Capital Parks PO D.C., Va., Md. 1790 6,544 (2,649) More than 300 parks, parkways, and military fortifications in and around Washington, D.C.
National Mall PO Washington, D.C. 1933 146 (59) Landscaped park, part of the L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C.
Nez Percé HT Oregon, Idaho, Mont., Wyo. 1986 1,170-mi (1,883-km) trail commemorates the retreat of the Nez Percé under Chief JosephJoseph
(Chief Joseph), c.1840–1904, chief of a group of Nez Percé. On his father's death in 1871, Joseph became leader of one of the groups that refused to leave the land ceded to the United States by the fraudulently obtained treaty of 1863.
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 in 1877.
North Country ST N.Y. to N.Dak. 1980 Extends 3,200 mi (5,149 km), connecting seven northern tier states.
Oregon HT Mo. to Oreg. 1978 Traces the c.2,000-mi (3,200-km) route of pioneers in 1841–60.
Overmountain Victory HT Tenn., Va., N.C., S.C. 1980 Follows the 300-mi (483-km) path of revolutionary Patriots.
Pacific Crest ST Calif., Oreg., Wash. 1968 Follows the Sierra and Cascade peaks 2,638 mi (4,245 km) from Mexico to Canada; along with the Appalachian Trail one of the two initial components of the National Trails System.
Piscataway Park PO S Md. 1961 4,486 (1,816) Preserves the view from Mt. Vernon of the opposite shore of the Potomac River.
Pony Express HT Mo., Kans., Colo., Utah, Nev., Calif. 1992 Follows the 1,966-mi (3,163-km) route of the pony express riders in 1860–61.
Potomac Heritage ST Va., D.C., Md., Pa. 1983 704-mi (1,133-km) trail connects the tidewater regions to the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.
Prince William Forest Park PO NE Va. 1936 18,572 (7,522) Pine and hardwood forests of the Quantico Creek watershed.
Rock Creek Park PO Washington, D.C. 1890 1,754 (710) Wooded preserve, one of the largest urban parks in the nation.
Santa Fe HT Mo., Kans., Okla., Col., N.Mex. 1987 Traces the 1,203-mi (1,936-km) route of famous Santa Fe TrailSanta Fe Trail,
important caravan route of the W United States, extending c.780 mi (1,260 km) from Independence, Mo., SW to Santa Fe, N.Mex. Independence and Westport, Mo., were the chief points where wagons, teams, and supplies were obtained.
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.
Theodore Roosevelt Island PO Washington, D.C., Va. 1932 89 (36) Wilderness preserve in the Potomac River; a tribute to the "conservationist president."
Trail of Tears HT N.C., Tenn., Ga., Ala., Ark., Okla. 1987 2,200-mi (3,540-km) trail commemorates the routes of forced migration of more than 15,000 Cherokee from their ancestral homes.
White House PO Washington, D.C. 1933 18 (7) See White HouseWhite House,
official name of the executive mansion of the President of the United States. It is on the south side of Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D.C., facing Lafayette Square. The building, constructed of Virginia freestone, is of simple and stately design.
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.
Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts PO N Va. 1966 130 (53) Set in a rolling, wooded landscaped area to provide artistic enjoyment and recreation; the first national park for the performing arts.
1BF Battlefield BP Battlefield Park BS Battlefield Site HP Historical Park HS Historic Site HT Historic Trail IS International Historic Site LS Lakeshore MM Memorial MO Monument MP Military Park MR Monument and Preserve NR Reserve NP Park PA Preserve and Addition PE Park and Expansion PO Park, other PP Park and Preserve PS Preserve PW Parkway RA Recreation Area RI River RR River and Recreation Area SS Seashore ST Scenic Trail WS Wild or Scenic River or Riverway
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