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(wĭn`ĭpĕg), city (1991 pop. 616,790), provincial capital, SE Man., Canada, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers. It is the province's largest city and one of the world's largest wheat markets. A railroad, commercial, industrial, and distribution center, it has an international airport, railroad shops, grain elevators, stockyards, meatpacking and automobile plants, flour and textile mills, and breweries.

The city's history reflects the history of early French and British explorers and fur traders. In 1738, the sieur de la VérendryeVérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de la
, 1685–1749, explorer in W Canada and the United States, b. Trois Rivières (Three Rivers), Que. His father was the sieur de Varennes, for a time governor of Trois Rivières.
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 built the first post on the site, Fort Rouge, but it was later abandoned. Other posts were built in the Red River region, which was fiercely contested by the North West CompanyNorth West Company,
fur-trading organization in North America in the late 18th and early 19th cent.; it was composed of Montreal trading firms and fur traders. Formation
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 and the Hudson's Bay CompanyHudson's Bay Company,
corporation chartered (1670) by Charles II of England for the purpose of trade and settlement in the Hudson Bay region of North America and for exploration toward the discovery of the Northwest Passage to Asia.
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. The conflict reached its height in the struggle over the Red River SettlementRed River Settlement,
agricultural colony in present Manitoba, North Dakota, and Minnesota. It was the undertaking of Thomas Douglas, 5th earl of Selkirk. Wishing to relieve the dispossessed and impoverished in Scotland and Northern Ireland, he secured enough control of the
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. The two companies were merged in 1821. Fort Gibraltar, a post of the North West Company on the site of present-day Winnipeg, was renamed Fort Garry and became the leading post in the region. In 1835 its name was changed to Winnipeg. Settlement was spurred by the construction of a rail line in 1881. Much of the city had to be rebuilt after the 1950 Red River flood, and the Red River Floodway was created in the 1960s to divert spring floodwaters around the city to the east. In the 1970s and 80s many new developments (a new city hall, hotels, a convention center, office buildings) were constructed.

In the city are the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, the Manitoba Theater Group, a symphony orchestra, and museums of human rights, history, science, and railroads. The Univ. of Manitoba and the Univ. of Winnipeg are also there, and the city has National Hockey League and Canadian Football League teams. An annual festival, the Folklorama, is dedicated to celebrating the city's increasingly cosmopolitan character.


river, c.200 mi (320 km) long, issuing from the north end of Lake of the Woods, SW Ont., Canada, and flowing in a winding course generally northwest to the southeast end of Lake Winnipeg, SE Man. There are six hydroelectric stations on its course, supplying most of S Manitoba with electricity; the largest station is at Seven Sisters Falls. The river was first traveled by the sons of Vérendrye, the Canadian explorer, and was much used by explorers and fur traders.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in southern Canada located on the Assiniboine River where it flows into the Red River. Administrative center of the province of Manitoba. Population, 523,000 (1968, including the suburbs; about one-half of the population is made up of English Canadians).

Winnipeg is an important trans-Canadian railroad and highway junction. It has a major airport in the suburb of St. James. The city is the trade and distribution center for Canada’s prairie regions, and it is a grain market of world importance. Concentrated in Winnipeg is about four-fifths of the output of Manitoba’s processing industry. There are food-processing (meat-canning, flour-milling, dairy, and vegetable oil mills), garment, furniture, printing, chemical, and electrical equipment plants. There is also petroleum refining, metalworking, machine building, and the production of building materials. Winnipeg has a university. The first settlement of Europeans on the site of Winnipeg was founded in 1738, and the city received its present name in 1873.




a lake in southern Canada. Remnant of the extensive glacial Lake Agassiz. Lake Winnipeg is located in a swampy, forested region at an elevation of 217 m. Its area is 24,300 sq km and its maximum depth, 28 m. The largest tributary of the lake is the Saskatchewan River. The Nelson River, which eventually flows into Hudson Bay, flows out of Lake Winnipeg. Over a period of many years the variation in the lake’s level has been 3 m. It freezes over in November and opens up at the end of April. Lake Winnipeg is navigable and has a fishing industry.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a city in S Canada, capital of Manitoba at the confluence of the Assiniboine and Red Rivers: University of Manitoba (1877) and University of Winnipeg (1871). Pop.: 626 685 (2001)
2. Lake. a lake in S Canada, in Manitoba: drains through the Nelson River into Hudson Bay. Area: 23 553 sq. km (9094 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005