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branch of geology specifically concerned with the origin, composition, structure, and properties of rocksrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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, primarily igneous and metamorphic, and secondarily sedimentary. It includes petrography, the systematic description and classification of rocks using microscopic examination of rock in thin sections; and petrogenesis, which deals with the origin and formation of the various kinds of rock. Petrology is also concerned with the laboratory simulation of rock-forming processes and the application of principles of physical chemistry to natural environments. Petrologic analyses of oceanic rocks have given insights into plate tectonicplate tectonics,
theory that unifies many of the features and characteristics of continental drift and seafloor spreading into a coherent model and has revolutionized geologists' understanding of continents, ocean basins, mountains, and earth history.
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 processes, especially rock from mid-oceanic ridges, which may be formed from magma derived from deep in the mantlemantle,
portion of the earth's interior lying beneath the crust and above the core. No direct observation of the mantle, or its upper boundary, has been made; its boundaries have been determined solely by abrupt changes in the velocities and character of seismic waves passing
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. Lunar rocks returned by Apollo astronauts were studied with petrographic techniques providing a wealth of information on the makeup and origin of the moon.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the science of rocks. In the USSR, some scientists—for example, F. Iu. Levinson-Lessing and D. S. Beliankin —regard “petrology” and “petrography” as synonyms. According to others, such as A. N. Zavaritskii, petrography deals with just the description of rocks, while petrology is concerned with genetic problems and theoretical constructions based on petrographic descriptions and experimental research.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The branch of geology concerned with the origin, occurrence, structure, and history of rocks, principally igneous and metamorphic rock.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
During classification, information of calcareous shale interbedded with limestone is not required and then this SVM automatically draws a flag where these lithologies are present, only using the data showed in the Figure 6B.
There was some expedient use of local non-silcrete lithologies. At sites that were some distance from silcrete outcrops (e.g.
(4) Spatial distribution of rocks with different lithologies controls the pattern of lithospheric magnetic anomaly along the profile.
In addition, distinctive lithologies in the underlying bedrock enable examination of till dispersal patterns for additional evidence of northward flow.
Earlier mapping assigned the lithologies now associated with the Naheola to various other units, most commonly some part of the Wilcox Group.
* improved roller-cone drill bit design for basement lithologies. While ODP's results from coring unsedimented ridge crests have not been totally successful, they are, however, encouraging.
It lies along the edge of the south eastern limits of the Grants Basin Neoproterozoic lithologies near the contact with the older Willyama basement lithologies.
Nelson intends to combine the acquired data with its current comprehensive dataset to help understand the structural setting and lithologies of the eastern Yilgarn margin.
Based on field, petrography and geochemical analysis it is concluded that the Formation possesses two decent lithologies i.e.
Fluid flow through heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs (limestone and dolomite) is a substantially different process from the flow through the homogeneous sandstone reservoir, this variation is largely cause to the fact that carbonate rocks tend to have a more complex pore system (i.e the interrelationships among depositional lithologies, the geometries of depositional facies, and diagenesis) than sandstone (Amin, et.