Pyrites consist of enriched Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, with enrichment coefficients higher than 2 and also comprise strongly depleted elements with enrichment coefficients less than 1, including Sr, Ba, Rb, and other large-ion lithophile
elements, as well as high-field-strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf.
* The contents of large ion lithophile
elements (Rb, Sr, Cs, and Ba) in deposits of the upper unit of the Ishim Formation are markedly lower than those in the Earth's crust.
This fact is probably determined by soil particles transportation (in relation to lithophile
elements), as well as the transfer of aerosols from Baikal lake, the waters of which contain high concentrations of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, and P.
Unsurprisingly, nearly the same suite of trace lithophile
and chalcophile elements as was measured in sulfur was observed in the analyzed sulfur leachates.
The same is true for the Nb-anomaly as well as for ratios of large-ion lithophile
elements (LILE) to light rare earth elements (LREE) and LILE to high-field strength elements (HFSE) (see  for the importance of these ratios for subduction processes).
The concentration of the following lithophile
elements: Ba (300-1100 ppm), Cs (2-385 ppm), Hf (5-16 ppm), Sc (2.4-37.1 ppm), Th (1.1-15.5 ppm),and U (< 0.50-6.4 ppm) is remarkable.
They found that the large ion lithophile
and light rare earth elements, especially K, Rb, Pb, Th, U, Zr and Nb correlated positively with terrigenous components, such as mica, rutile, tourmaline and zircon and with the maturity index of a sedimentary rock, while ferromagnesian elements Fe, Ti, Mn, Se and V and small cations Na, Ca and Sr correlates positively with chemically unstable components such as volcanic lithic, epidote and feldspar.
Uranium and thorium are lithophile
elements, mostly concentrated in crystal rocks with an average Th/U ratio of 3.5 and are enriched especially in acidic igneous rocks such as granites, pegmatites as compared to basic and ultra basic intermediate [4-6].
An exception is a group of closely correlated lithophile
elements, most specifically Al, Si, Ti, K, Rb, and Zr (less closely correlated Mg, Zn, Cu).
The alkalic lavas are enriched in the light-REE, large-ion lithophile
(LIL), and high-field-strength (HFS) elements, but display the same middle- to heavy-REE abundances as tholeiitic lavas.
(2000) The color change after healing at 380[degrees]C of tanzanite crystals from Merelani Arusha (Tanzania): Preliminary EMPA-SIMS-LAM-ICP-MS study on major, trace, tight lithophile
and volatile elements.