Speaking of older shore formations, the features which correspond to the Litorina Sea
(i.e., 7500-4000 cal yr BP--calendar years before present) coastlines, can be frequently found at heights of 20-30 m in Estonia (Saarse et al.
These blooms are as old as the brackish-water period (the Litorina Sea
), which started about 7000 BP, but are reported to have increased in frequency, biomass, and duration in recent decades, presumably in response to anthropogenic eutrophication (Bianchi et al., 2000).
Unlike the other parts of the coastal areas, the Sojkinskaya Upland had never been covered by water over the period of postglacial lakes or Litorina Sea
He proposed an idea of two transgressions of the Litorina Sea
and their diachroneity in Estonia.
About 85% of the Rintala reclaim area consist of sulfide-bearing sediments (0.24-1.07% S in parent sediment) which were deposited in the former Litorina sea
>4000 years ago, after which they emerged above the sea level due to isostatic land uplift.
The baseline originates from the azimuth of the maximal land upheaval of 326 [degrees] and it has generally been used to observe the shore processes of the Litorina Sea
(for example Kessel & Raukas 1979; Veski 1998) and located between the neotectonic isobases 0 and +1 mm/year (see for example Miidel 1995, Fig.
According to the water level simulation, the highest shoreline of the Litorina Sea
reached 18.8 m a.s.l.
During the period of the transgression of the Litorina Sea
(ca 4000-5000 years BP) intensive formation of dunes took place (Ord, 1972a).
On the Darss Peninsula, where the Holocene coastal dynamics and landscape development can be properly reconstructed and dated, there is a cliff of the former Litorina Sea
. It separates the "New Darss", which was formed in the Postatlantic stage, from the "Old Darss", which already existed during the Atlantic stage.
In Latvia, soils with sandy soil texture are mainly related to the Baltic Ice Lake and Litorina Sea
, aeolian deposits, and glacioaquatic (glacio-fluvial and glaciolacustrine) deposits, where Podzols and Arenosols are the dominant soils.
The Litorina Sea
deposits and coastal forms are observed at a height of 12-23 m a.s.l.
The interpolated water level surfaces were derived from the BIL, Ancylus Lake and Litorina Sea
coastal formation databases (Saarse et al.