Died April 1363. Leader of the peasant revolt of “red troops” in North China between 1351 and 1363. In May 1351, Liu Fu-t’ung and other members of the religious sect Pai Lien Chiao initiated a revolt of the peasants of the Huang Ho Valley. In late March 1355 the rebels created their own Sung state with K’aifeng as its capital. Liu Fufung headed the government. Armies of the feudal lords of North China attacked the rebels, and together with government forces they crushed the insurrection by 1362. Liu Fut’ung died in battle.