where the tension (thrust) forces in the leftmost strip due to the complex action of the distributed dead and live loads
(g + p) can be expressed as
The mean value and standard deviation of the designed dead and live loads
for each girder are calculated based on the specifications provided in Section 3.
(i) The reliability of structures is nearly uniform for different load ratios when using the proposed combination; however, when using the combination of [[gamma].sub.D] = 1.4 and [[gamma].sub.L] = 1.4 the structural reliability tends to decrease as the values of load ratios [r.sub.c] (high live load
) decrease, which is undesirable.
where RF = capacity reduction factor; [R.sub.n] = nominal capacity corresponding to the type of load for which the rating is being conducted (e.g., bending moment, shear, etc.); [n.sub.D] = number of dead load comparisons; [n.sub.L] = number of live loads
other than the rating vehicle; [[gamma].sub.Di] = dead load factor in the ith dead load; [[gamma].sub.Li] = live load
factor for the ith live load
other than the rating vehicle; [[gamma].sub.R] = live load
factor for the rating vehicle; [L.sub.R] = nominal live load
effect for the rating vehicle; and [m.sub.FLE] = factor to account for the significance of the overload to FLE.
The live load
p applied on the bridge strains both the cable and the stiffening girder.
--Deck live load
of 40 psf and dead load of 10 psf (note that other gravity loads may control residential deck ledger design such as snow and concentrated loads such as planters; as well as lateral loads from wind or seismic);
Force change caused by live load
and temperature change ([H.sub.LIVE]--[H.sub.1(reo)]) is carried by cross section [A.sub.C2].
No doubt you're familiar with terms such as "dead load" and "live load
," but what do they really mean?
In addition, it must bear the weight of someone climbing up there to retrieve a Frisbee or to clean the gutters, and any extra weight from snow and ice or the force of the wind (the live load
Depending on the method of construction, the difference between a floor that has the loading capacity of 150 pounds per square foot live load
or one with 300 pounds may only be a dollar or two more for each square foot erected.
At this point in the development of loss-of-weight feeding, there were still some disadvantages, one being the very large dead load to live load
ratio of the hopper and feeder equipment related to the actual ingredient quantity to be weighed.