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a city in Orel Oblast, RSFSR, on the left bank of the Sosna, a tributary of the Don. On the Orel-Elets highway, it has a railroad station on the Verkhov’e-Marmyzhi line. Population, 40,000 (1973).
Livny is the site of the Livgidromash plant. Local plants also produce fire fighting equipment, assemblies for motor vehicles, and liquid metering devices, plastics, and drafting equipment. The food industry produces alcohol, sugar, butter, and cheese. There are poultry and meat, food, and milling combines. There are building-materials and apparel industries in Livny. The city has an evening machine-building technicum and a medical school. There is a branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hydraulic Machine Building.
Livny has been known since the end of the 12th century. It was destroyed during the Mongol Tatar invasion but was rebuilt as a fortress at the end of the 16th century, when it provided defense against Crimean Tatar raids. It was one of the centers of the rebellion led by I. I. Bolotnikov. After the construction of the Belgorod line in the middle of the 17th century, Livny lost its military importance. It became a city in 1708. In 1778, Livny became a district capital in Orel Province.