Livonia


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Livonia

, region and former Russian province
Livonia (lĭvōˈnēə), region and former Russian province, comprising present Estonia and parts of Latvia (Vidzeme and Latgale). It borders on the Baltic Sea and its arms, the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland, in the west and the north and extends E to Lake Peipus (Chudskoye) and the Narva. Livonia, also known as Livland, was named after the Livs, a Finno-Ugric tribe that inhabited the coast when, in the 13th cent., the Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquered the entire region. The knights formed a strong state and threatened Lithuania and Novgorod in the 13th and 14th cent. The chief cities—notably Riga, Tartu, and Tallinn—were Germanic in culture and were members of the Hanseatic League. After the dissolution (1561) of the Livonian Order, Livonia was contested by Poland, Russia, and Sweden. Courland, in the southwest, became a duchy under Polish suzerainty, and Latgale, in the southeast, became part of Poland. Vidzeme, in the center, passed first to Poland, then (1629) to Sweden, which also held the northern part (Estonia). The Swedish share was conquered (1710) in the Northern War by Peter I of Russia, who kept it at the Peace of Nystad (1721). Latgale passed to Russia in 1772. In 1783, Livonia was constituted a Russian province, and in 1918 it was divided between Estonia and Latvia.

Livonia

, city, United States
Livonia (lĭvōnˈyə), city (1990 pop. 100,850), Wayne co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit; founded 1835, inc. 1950. Among its manufactures are transportation equipment, plastic and steel products, textiles, and food products. The city is the seat of Madonna College. The Wolverine Harness Raceway is there.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Livonia

 

originally the name of the region inhabited by the Livs in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, lying along the lower reaches of the Daugava and Gauja rivers. From the second quarter of the 13th century to 1561, Livonia was the name given to the entire territory of Latvia and Estonia, which was controlled by the German Knights.

Livonia was a confederation of five feudal states: the Livonian Order, the Archbishopric of Riga, and the Bishoprics of Courland, Dorpat (Tartu), and Ösel. It was nominally ruled by the pope and the German emperor. After the creation of the Duchy of Courland in 1561, the name Livonia was applied to northern Latvia and southern Estonia—territories that in the course of the Livonian War came under the control of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the Truce of Altmark in 1629, these territories passed to Sweden. With this restricted meaning, the name “Livonia” was replaced by “Livland” in the 17th century.


Livonia

 

a city in the northern part of the USA, in Michigan. An industrial suburb of Detroit, it had a population of 110,000 in 1970. The chief industry is machine building, including motor vehicles.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Livonia

1. a former Russian province on the Baltic, north of Lithuania: became Russian in 1721; divided between Estonia and Latvia in 1918
2. a city in SE Michigan, west of Detroit. Pop.: 99 487 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
MAP is also designing another four-building development in nearby East New York, which is part of the second phase of development in the Livonia Avenue Initiative, which aims to revitalize City-owned sites along Livonia Avenue in East New York and Brownsville.
Low water pressure or no water pressure is being experienced in Livonia and neighboring communities.
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Fairfield Inn and Suites Detroit Livonia, a hotel in Livonia, US, and a brand from US-based hospitality company, Marriott International Inc (NYSE: MAR), has announced its re-opening on March 1, 2012, on completing a renovation project.
Livonia Public Schools, whose mission statement included "Teaming together to ensure learning for all", runs 26 schools/centers in Livonia and Westland cities of Michigan.
Magnus describes the sumptuous reception of which he informs his brother and relatives; expresses hope that his mission to the Tsar will bring peace and unity to Livonia, and freedom and restoration of rights for the poor prisoners; orders that during his absence good governance be upheld so that nobody should suffer, as merely keeping Piltene is not enough; in case of threat he will not leave them helpless and any potential aggressor shall have to answer for their deeds; before his departure he sent Tiburtius Medelmann to his governor and advisors in Courland with a sealed memorial, which is to serve as a guiding light.
Mary's Cultural Center, Livonia, Mich.; Christmas Dinner.
The Automotive Division's 36th Annual Innovations Awards Gala is scheduled for November 8 in Livonia, Mich.
IQPC, Intelligent Tire Technology Conference, Livonia, MI, Katrina Corns (646) 502-3256; email: katrina.corns@iqpc.com--October 23-25.
Livonia, Mich.-based Valassis is acquiring Windsor, Conn.-based ADVO in a merger that creates the nation's largest integrated media services provider, serving some 20,000 advertisers worldwide, including 94 of the top 100 in the U.S.