liha Proto-Finnic *osa 'meat', cognate with Proto-Saami *oance 'meat', is preserved only in Livonian
. In other languages, this word is replaced by Proto-Finnic *liha (cf.
The brachiopods from the Livonian
Basin have been insufficiently studied and are identified at different taxonomic levels (Table S3).
I must point out that this detail was not mentioned in the trial against "Old Thiess." Many years later, after a long research trajectory, I inscribed both the Livonian
case and the benandanti in a much larger (in fact, Eurasian) perspective, focusing on shamanism and its varieties: one of the elements, I argued, that ultimately entered into the stereotype of the Witches' Sabbath (Ginzburg 1989a; 1991b; 2003).
In the sumptuary laws of Livonian
towns there was one constantly repeated requirement regarding the fabric used for clothing: wearing garments or adornments made of silk were prohibited or restricted (e.g.
Between 1345 and 1382, the Knights of the Cross attacked from Prussia some 70 times, while the Livonian
Knights of the Sword made 30 military forays.
During the given research 11 Livonian
villages were surveyed and evaluated (in brackets the Liv names of the villages are given): Vaide (Vaid), Saunags (Sanag), Pitrags (Pitrog), Kosrags (Kostrog), Mazirbe (Ira), Sikrags (Sikrog), Jaunciems (Uzkila), Lielirbe (Ira), Mikeltornis (Piza), Luzna (Luz), Ovisi (Patikmo) (Zirnite, 2011) (Figs 2 and 3).
We cross a wooden bridge, pass an aged watermill, and look up at the fallen gray ruins of the 13th century Livonian
True, he was counting on the support of Livonian
is being revived by young people reciting poetry in the language.
The item noted, for example, that according to a United Nations agency, only one person on Earth, a Latvian, still speaks Livonian
. And further, that a native language in Alaska called Eyak is no longer heard anywhere because its lone remaining speaker passed away last year.
The only other autochthonous language in Latvia, the Livonian
language (livo kel), belongs to the Finno-Ugric family of languages.
(5.) Janet Martin, "The Novokshcheny of Novgorod: Assimilation in the 16th Century," Central Asian Survey 9:2 (1990): 13-38; Martin, "Multiethnicity in Muscovy: A Consideration of Christian and Muslim Tatars in the 1550s-1580s," Journal of Early Modern History 5:1 (2001): 1-23; and Martin, "Tatars in the Muscovite Army during the Livonian
War," in The Military and Society in Russia, 1450-1917, ed.