Livonia

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Livonia

, region and former Russian province
Livonia (lĭvōˈnēə), region and former Russian province, comprising present Estonia and parts of Latvia (Vidzeme and Latgale). It borders on the Baltic Sea and its arms, the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland, in the west and the north and extends E to Lake Peipus (Chudskoye) and the Narva. Livonia, also known as Livland, was named after the Livs, a Finno-Ugric tribe that inhabited the coast when, in the 13th cent., the Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquered the entire region. The knights formed a strong state and threatened Lithuania and Novgorod in the 13th and 14th cent. The chief cities—notably Riga, Tartu, and Tallinn—were Germanic in culture and were members of the Hanseatic League. After the dissolution (1561) of the Livonian Order, Livonia was contested by Poland, Russia, and Sweden. Courland, in the southwest, became a duchy under Polish suzerainty, and Latgale, in the southeast, became part of Poland. Vidzeme, in the center, passed first to Poland, then (1629) to Sweden, which also held the northern part (Estonia). The Swedish share was conquered (1710) in the Northern War by Peter I of Russia, who kept it at the Peace of Nystad (1721). Latgale passed to Russia in 1772. In 1783, Livonia was constituted a Russian province, and in 1918 it was divided between Estonia and Latvia.

Livonia

, city, United States
Livonia (lĭvōnˈyə), city (1990 pop. 100,850), Wayne co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit; founded 1835, inc. 1950. Among its manufactures are transportation equipment, plastic and steel products, textiles, and food products. The city is the seat of Madonna College. The Wolverine Harness Raceway is there.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Livonia

 

originally the name of the region inhabited by the Livs in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, lying along the lower reaches of the Daugava and Gauja rivers. From the second quarter of the 13th century to 1561, Livonia was the name given to the entire territory of Latvia and Estonia, which was controlled by the German Knights.

Livonia was a confederation of five feudal states: the Livonian Order, the Archbishopric of Riga, and the Bishoprics of Courland, Dorpat (Tartu), and Ösel. It was nominally ruled by the pope and the German emperor. After the creation of the Duchy of Courland in 1561, the name Livonia was applied to northern Latvia and southern Estonia—territories that in the course of the Livonian War came under the control of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the Truce of Altmark in 1629, these territories passed to Sweden. With this restricted meaning, the name “Livonia” was replaced by “Livland” in the 17th century.


Livonia

 

a city in the northern part of the USA, in Michigan. An industrial suburb of Detroit, it had a population of 110,000 in 1970. The chief industry is machine building, including motor vehicles.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Livonia

1. a former Russian province on the Baltic, north of Lithuania: became Russian in 1721; divided between Estonia and Latvia in 1918
2. a city in SE Michigan, west of Detroit. Pop.: 99 487 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The Livonian language has been chosen as the main language of analysis, while its factual data have been compared not only to the linguistically well analysed Estonian and Finnish languages, but also to Karelian, Veps, Ingrian, Votic and other Finnic languages and their varieties.
The preconditions for the forming of regional differences are: 1) the diversity of ethnic historical origin of inhabitants (the different ancient Baltic tribes, as well as the Finno-Ugric ethnos of Livonians), 2) historical events and conditions, 3) development of regional economy, 4) migration processes.
The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, written in the last decade of the thirteen hundreds to glorify the crusading orders' activities in that region, describes an episode in the late twelfth century when the "evil" Russians--who at that time held loose dominion over the non-Christian and non-Slavic tribes along the lower WeStern Dvina river--were driven out of Livonia and Lettland by the Crusaders "never again to oppress those people." (16) The chronicler likewise differentiated between the Russians and "the Christians" (by which he meant Latin Christianity as opposed to Orthodox Christianity).
The book by Valts Ernstreits is a thorough analysis of about a 150 years development of the Livonian literary language.
Due to the fact, that in 13-16th centuries the Teutonic order and the Livonian order bordered Samogitia, it was always threatened by their expansionist aims.
(10) Magnus wrote that the aim of his visit to Russia was the promotion of Christian church in Muscovy and the liberation and rehabilitation of all those (Livonians) who had been imprisoned; it was his aim to bring peace and unity to all the neighbouring potentates.
The German Suburb originated during the Livonian War and underwent several moves and attacks.
Im Fokus des Artikels "Metsepole Livonians from the 14th to the 17th century" (S.
The Livonians themselves have been undergoing a revival since Latvia reestablished its independence in 1991.
Livonians were allowed to freely travel and engage in trade activities in the whole of Muscovy without having to pay taxes.
The comprehensive Livonian dictionary lists hundreds of words related to the sea and fishing, which Viitso has been able to record from coastal Livonians.