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(lyo͞o`blyänä), Ger. Laibach, city (1991 pop. 267,008), capital of Slovenia, on the Sava River. An industrial and transportation center, it has industries that manufacture textiles, paper, chemicals, and electronics. It is a Roman Catholic archiepiscopal see and is the seat of the Slovene Academy of Arts and Sciences and a university (founded 1919). Known as Emona in Roman times, Ljubljana passed in 1277 to the Hapsburgs and became the chief city of the Austrian province of CarniolaCarniola
, Croatian Kranj, historic region, in Slovenia. The history of this largely mountainous area is closely linked with that of Slovenia. The first known inhabitants, a Celtic tribe called the Carni, were displaced by the Romans, who made Carniola part of their
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. The city was held briefly by the French during the Napoleonic Wars; it passed to Yugoslavia in 1919 and was made the capital of Slovenia in 1946. In 1991, Ljubljana continued as the capital of the newly independent republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana was the center of the Slovene national movement in the 19th cent. It has a medieval fortress and several fine palaces and churches. For the international congress held there in 1821, see Laibach, Congress ofLaibach, Congress of
, conference of European powers in 1821, held in what is now Ljubljana, Slovenia. The chief powers at the congress were Russia, Austria, Prussia, France, and Great Britain.
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a city in Yugoslavia; capital of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. Located in the Ljubljana intermontane basin, on both banks of the Ljubljanica River near its confluence with the Sava River. Population, 174,000 (1971). It is one of the country’s most important economic and cultural centers and a railroad and highway junction. It developed historically as a trade, transportation, and administrative center.

Under the people’s power, industry began to develop in Ljubljana. Among the prominent sectors of industry are machine building and metalworking (including the large Litostroj Hydraulic Turbine Plant, the production of electrotechnical articles and instruments), textiles, food, wood products, chemistry, and printing. The Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts, the university, a higher pedagogical school, the Slovene Philharmonic Society (founded 1702), the National and University libraries, the National and Modern galleries, and the National and Slovene Ethnological museums are located in the city.

Early in the first century of the Common Era there was a Roman camp on the site of Ljubljana. It later became the city of Emona, which was destroyed in the fifth century. The first mention of the Slovene settlement of Ljubljana dates to 1144. In the second half of the 13th century Ljubljana (called Laibach in German) acquired the status of a city and became the administrative center of Carniola, together with which it passed to the Austrian Hapsburgs in 1335. In the 1460’s Ljubljana was the bishop’s residence. In 1809 it became the principal city of the Illyrian Provinces, but after the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15 it reverted to Austria. In 1821 the congress of the Holy Alliance (the Congress of Laibach) was held in Ljubljana.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries Ljubljana was the center of the Slovene national liberation movement. In 1918, with the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (after 1929, Yugoslavia), Ljubljana became the capital of Slovenia. In April 1941 it was occupied by fascist Italy, and in September 1943 fascist German troops continued the occupation. In May 1945 it was liberated by the People’s Liberation Army of Yugoslavia.

Remnants of fortifications, an aqueduct, and a cemetery have been preserved from the ancient city. The historical nucleus of the city is the Grad Fortress on a hill by the Ljubljanica River (established in the ninth century, rebuilt in the baroque style in the 16th and 17th centuries; tower added in the mid-19th century). The architectural appearance of Ljubljana is defined primarily by the baroque style: the Bishop’s Palace (16th to 18th centuries), churches from the 17th and 18th centuries, the Church of St. Nikola (early 18th century, architect A. Pozzo), and the city hall (early 18th century, architect G. Macek). Structures from the late 19th and early 20th centuries were built in the spirit of eclecticism (the Opera Theater, the building of the Executive Vece) and art nouveau (the Grand Hotel Union). The stadium and university library (both from the 1930’s; architect J. Plednik) are in the national romantic spirit. Among structures from the 1950’s and 1960’s are the building of the People’s Skupstina (architect V. Glanc), the Tivoli Gymnasium (architect M. Bozic), the Press House (architect B. Kocmut), and complexes of residential and public buildings.


Stele, F. Ljubljana. Ljubljana, 1940.
Mal, J. Stara Ljubljana in njeni ljudje. Ljubljana, 1957.


the capital of Slovenia: capital of Illyria (1816--49); part of Yugoslavia (1918--91); university (1595). Pop.: 265 881 (2002)
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