Both species Human parechovirus (some of which are former echovirus serotypes) and Ljungan virus which belong to genus Parechovirus have been implicated in the development of T1D .
Schonecker et al., "Development of type 1 diabetes in wild bank voles associated with islet autoantibodies the novel Ljungan virus," Experimental Diabesity Research, vol.
The first known bike trail was built between 1900 and 1912 along the river Ljungan
Multiple 2A1, 2A2, or 2A3 protein products with undefined function are described in Ljungan virus, seal picornavirus, and duck hepatitis virus genomes (17-19).
Although multiple 2A products have also been described for Ljungan virus, seal picornavirus, and duck hepatitis virus (17-19), the 2A region of THV shows no sequence homology to these products or to any other picornavirus sequence currently in GenBank.
Existing research indicates that a related virus, which only affects rodents, Ljungan
virus, has been linked to the development of rodent diabetes.
(42) This area consists of the town of Sundsvall and its large hinterland, demarcated by the coastline and the rivers Indalsalven to the north and Ljungan
to the south.
The genus Parechovirus is composed of 2 species: Ljungan
virus, isolated from bank voles (1), and human parechovirus (HPeV), a frequent human pathogen.
A decade later a similar framework was established in Ljungan
, and institutional developments followed the timber frontier as it moved steadily northward.
Genetic identity to Ljungan
virus, a rodent parechovirus, was only 44.5%, comparable to all previously described HPeVs.
The nucleotide sequences of the following parechoviruses were obtained from GenBank: and their accession numbers were L02971 for HPeV-1 (Harris strain), AJ005695 for HPeV-2 (Williamson strain), AB084913 for HPeV-3(A308/99), AJ889918 for HPeV-3 (Can82853-01), DQ315670 for HPeV-4 (K251176-02), AM235750 for HPeV-4 (T75-4077), AF055846 for HPeV-5 (CT86-6760), AM235749 for HPeV-5 (T92-15), and AF327920 for Ljungan
The Parechovirus genus contains 3 human pathogens (HPeV-1, -2, and -3) as well as Ljungan
virus, a rodent parechovirus isolated from bank voles (2).