It can be concluded that the laser irradiation leads to local buckling
first and greatly decrease the value of CBL.
is also studied by several scholars.
Plastic Behaviour and Local Buckling
. Figures 20-23 present the deformation shapes and the locations of the yielding zones of the steel columns shown in Figures 11-13 captured at the time when the columns have just failed in the global failure mode.
Based on EC4 , for the local buckling
resistance design, the maximum limit of the width-to-thickness ratios (b/t) is calculated using (1).
, the accuracy of the FEM predictions of significant local buckling
was assessed by comparing the FEM results to a physical test of a full-scale beam-column subassemblage by Engelhardt .
The first minima of the curve reveals load ratio for local buckling
where as the second minimum point shows load ratio for distortional buckling.
The structural optimisation consists of many design variables and constraints; fourteen constraints are considered (for both load combinations LC1 and LC2: horizontal displacement, deflection, stress of the polar units, stress of the translational units, local buckling
test of the polar units, local buckling
test of translational units, and global buckling) and seven design variables are optimised (number of scissor units and the three dimensions of a box cross section for both the polar and the translational units).
However, corrugation webs have to secure stability against local buckling
occurring in one corrugation, global buckling occurring in several corrugations, or interactive buckling, and EN 1993-1-5 Annex D specifies the idealized critical shear stress as shown in (4a) and (4b).
By contrast, for the shell R35 weakened by a cutout, the theoretical load-shortening diagrams diverge markedly upon local buckling
of the shell at the cutout, with CRC producing a stiffer response and greater global buckling load.
Failure modes and stress pattern in test specimens: a) flexural buckling; b) local buckling
Shaat and Fam  found, transverse Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) layers are effective in confining the outward local buckling
of short columns and that the load capacity increased by 18 % for short columns and 13-23 % for slender columns.