gangs

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gangs

relatively closed groups of (usually) working-class youth, with identifiable leadership roles, and often associated with particular territories and deviant activity. The first sociological work on gangs was influenced by the interactionist perspective developed by the CHICAGO SCHOOL. Subsequent classic studies (e.g. Cohen, 1955; Whyte, 1955) continued to employ this perspective, examining the way in which individuals were socialized into the SUBCULTURE of the group, the nature of the value system which this represented, and its function for individual members. More recently, sociological research has examined the MORAL PANICS created by gangs of MODS AND ROCKERS (Cohen, 1973) and by FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM (Taylor, 1971; Marsh et al., 1978; Dunning et al., 1988). Most of the classic studies of gangs have been concerned with white working-class youth, indicating the need for further empirical work in the area of race, ethnicity and gender. See also CRIMINOLOGY, DELINQUENCY, DELINQUENT SUBCULTURE, LABELLING THEORY, FOLK DEVILS, DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION, RESISTANCE THROUGH RITUAL.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
References in classic literature ?
Do your policemen also have to approve the local ordinances
'This is also to ensure that national projects will also comply with local ordinances, such as securing building permits, color schemes and other mandates, including having all-gender restrooms,' Belmonte said.
In an article posted by Merlie Dacunos, non-uniformed personnel of the CPPO, she said that the discipline zone is a way of encouraging the community to obey local ordinances and laws.
Presidential spokesman Salvador Panelo pushed for the need to implement the local ordinances related to environment protection to preserve the beauty of Boracay.
Add to this is the fact that most of those who got elected to the legislative body are either returnees or relatives of former members - they having the knowledge on how to craft local ordinances. Putting this into context, then one can conclude that the city is in good hands.
Meanwhile, 679,213 (60.63 percent) others were caught violating other local ordinances such as urinating and spitting in public places; possession of deadly and bladed weapons; use of karaoke on the wee hours of the night; ban on barkers; and traffic-related regulations.
Meanwhile, Romulo Puyat said establishments in public beaches in El Nido are in danger of being closed down due to noncompliance of environmental laws and local ordinances by the end of the month.
Owners of a downtown Palatine bar and grill expect it to be open today after they submit an updated liquor license application with the village and file proper state documents in response to accusations it was violating local ordinances.
That's because commercial signs were, and still are, regulated by local ordinances. Cities and towns have their own laws dictating when, where and how signs may be posted, and can remove signs that violate local laws.
Asmahan Ashu Shukailiyah, a social researcher in the Awareness Department of the Muscat Municipality, said tampering with public utilities and properties violates local ordinances prescribed by the Municipality Law issued by the Royal Decree 32/97.
Supporters of the merchants' case are arguing that statewide enforcement of the law should overrule any local ordinances, and the inconsistent local laws like the plastic bag bans seen in cities across Texas cause unnecessary strain on small businesses.

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