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(science and technology)
Progressive movement, as of an animal or a vehicle.



in animals and man, a variety of movement, described by an active shift of the body in space, that includes swimming, flying, and various kinds of movement on the ground (including man’s walking and running).

Locomotion plays an enormously important role in the life of animals. For example, they move when seeking food and escaping enemies. There are many kinds of locomotion, from the very simplest amoeboid movements of some unicellular organisms to complex locomotor acts.

The kinds of locomotion have changed and become more complex during the course of animal evolution, and they have largely determined the structural characteristics of the animals. The appearance of new kinds of locomotion is associated with improvements of the locomotor apparatus, the sense organs, and, especially, the central nervous system. Locomotion is most complex and varied in vertebrates, a brilliant example of the relationship between form and function in evolution (see Figure 1); it includes swimming, flying, gliding, climbing, jumping, brachiation (swinging by the arms), and walking and running on four or on two legs.

The various gaits (walk, trot, amble, four-legged or two-legged ricochet, gallop), unlike the methods of locomotion, are determined not by the structure of the locomotor apparatus but by differences in the coordination of the extremities. The changes in locomotion during the course of the transformation of ape to man have played an exceptionally important role: climbing trees facilitated the formation of the grasping organs—the hands— and the transition to walking upright freed the hands for use as organs of work.


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Figure 1. The original mode of locomotion was swimming by flexing the body in a horizontal plane. With the emergence of animals onto dry land, the extremities became the chief organs of locomotion. The basic form of locomotion of terrestrial vertebrates is walking and, for high speeds, running (on four or, less commonly, on two legs). There are two main types of terrestrial locomotion: symmetrical, in which the extremities operate alternately (the front paw always being followed by the hind paw diagonal to it, and rarely the reverse), and asymmetrical, in which the hind paws work alternately or synchronously with the front paws. The earliest terrestrial vertebrates traveled by symmetrical locomotion at a gait by which all paws worked by turn at equal intervals. The need for more rapid locomotion, combined with inadequacies of the locomoter apparatus itself, resulted in a change in rhythm. The interval in the operation of diagonal extremities diminished, while that of extremities on the same side increased: first, a trotlike walk developed; subsequently, a trot developed with diagonal extremities working in unison. Only when the locomotor apparatus improved radically (coinciding with the appearance of mammals) did the amble (whereby extremities on the same side worked in unison) and asymmetrical locomotion (more efficient and swifter than symmetrical) develop. This led to the appearance of the four-legged ricochet, from which evolved the gallop (the most progressive form of locomotion and characteristic only of mammals).
References in periodicals archive ?
The Soyuz TMA-19M capsule will be at Locomotion until January 15, 2018.
This helps us to have a powerful hardware to device, analyze and update the hexapod locomotion algorithm.
Furthermore, high locomotion will be particularly useful for helping an employee overcome the psychological barriers to the expression of promotive voice behavior.
The loss or loss of use of one lower extremity together with the loss or loss of use of one upper extremity, which so affect the functions of balance or propulsion as to preclude locomotion without the aid of braces, crutches, canes or a wheelchair
Gastropods crawl using 1) compression ("direct") waves, which move from the posterior to the anterior of the foot; 2) elongation ("retrograde") waves, which move from the anterior to the posterior of the foot; 3) muscular waves that extend the width of the foot ("monotaxic"); 4) muscular waves that move out of phase on the left and right sides of the foot ("ditaxic"); 5) lateral or diagonal waves ("composite"); and 6) arrhythmic muscular locomotion, with an absence of distinct muscular waves (Jones and Trueman, 1970; Miller, 1974b).
High feedback gains can help to mitigate the effects of unmodeled dynamics during locomotion at the expense of "stiff" and often unpredictable interactions with the environment.
As Park observed, locomotion means moving with a goal or destination in mind.
As an example, the paper [4] describes a robotic system SCARAB that was also developed for a planetary application and is able to realize wheel-walking locomotion mode.
The findings suggest that the parallel evolution of two-legged locomotion and manual dexterity in hands and fingers in the human lineage were a consequence of adaptive pressures on ancestral quadrupeds for balance control by foot digits while retaining the critical capability for fine finger specialization.
Key Words: Compound Action Potential (CAP), Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV), Sciatic Nerve, locomotion.
Several taxa of marine fishes are capable of both aquatic and terrestrial locomotion, yet the terrestrial locomotion mechanics of many of these taxa have not been studied.
Hybrid control and motion planning of dynamical legged locomotion.