In Clifford's (1987) interpretation, the occurrence of lodicules in all true florets of the early grasses serves as evidence that most grasses have only subterminal flowers (see the previous section).
The homology of lodicules with other organs in nongrasses is ambiguous.
Lodicules are involved in the opening of florets at the time of flowering (Clayton, 1990).
Although such characteristic grass features as spikelets and lodicules may not have been present in the earliest grasses (see above), the grass-type fruit, with a lateral and well-developed embryo (char.
Three additional characters may be synapomorphies of this group, but can be optimized equally parsimoniously elsewhere: presence of two lodicules (char.
In all five of these genera, the species for which character scores are available have membranous, nonciliate ligules; absence of bicellular microhairs (except possibly Duthiea; see Watson & Dallwitz, 1992); two or three lodicules that are lanceolate, unlobed, and non- or weakly vascularized (including Duthiea, pers.
Morphology of lodicules, their variability and importance in the taxonomy of the Poaceae family.
NOTE: Characters 14-18 are scored as ambiguous for taxa that have tepals rather than lodicules, and characters 15-18 are scored as inapplicable for taxa that are scored 0 for character 14.
Stipa = , three or very rarely two lodicules (Bor, 1968; Tzvelev, 1977).
16: Fusion of anterior pair of lodicules: 0 = free; 1 = fused.
15: Lodicule number: 2 = two; 3 = three; 4 = four; 5 = five; 6 = six.