Computing discrete

logarithms is apparently difficult (no efficient alogrithm is known), while the inverse problem of discrete exponentiation is not (it can be computed efficiently using exponentiation by squaring, for example).

Investigations of four types: a historical search, a conceptual analysis, clinical research involving mathematics teachers and their students, and the development of a curricular approach to

logarithms that address the historical and cultural foundation of this mathematical concept was constructively informed and guided by mapping.

Logarithms (logs) are basically the inverse of exponents.

Starting with this simple fact, one can demonstrate that the same is true for areas of regions between the curve and the x-axis, and go on to prove properties of

logarithms and verify certain limits.

The results were then converted into

logarithms. Finally, these

logarithms were normalized so that they equaled zero in the second quarter of 1979, the beginning of the EMS.

The Edinburgh-born genius discovered

logarithms almost 400 years ago - and paved the way for the modern PC.

SIMPLE sums or mind-bending

logarithms, even the youngest of students will benefit from this fantastic scientific calculator.

The new methodology uses

logarithms, powers of two which compress the figures and change the complexity of the sums.

For business communicators, that's not such a novel concept - and we probably didn't have to suffer through

logarithms to arrive at the conclusion.

The Scottish mathematician John Napier (1550-1617) spent years working out formulas that would give him appropriate exponents for a great many numbers, and he called them

logarithms (from Greek words meaning "proportionate numbers").

The invention of

logarithms in 1614 by John Napier of Scotland laid the foundation for the slide rule.

If unmeasured luxury characteristics have been creating a growing number of high-value outliers, using

logarithms instead of untransformed values will reduce the likelihood that such growth will be interpreted as an increase in prices.