Logging Equipment

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Logging Equipment


the machines, mechanisms, auxiliary structures, and devices designed for production operations in logging.

Logging equipment includes motorized tools; transport facilities; machine tools, units, and semiautomatic lines for initial processing of wood (such as trimming branches, bucking and sorting tree-length logs, barking assorted pieces, and splitting blocks); and hoisting and transport machinery and devices. Among the motorized tools are gasoline engine and electromotor saws, used for felling, trimming off large branches, and bucking tree-length logs; gasoline engine and electromotor twig cutters; and tools created to work with saws and twig cutters, such as roller wedges and winches, brush trimmers, bark strippers, engine-driven drills, snowplows, pumps, and power winches. Saws using gasoline engines (see Table (1) are widely used in logging, the annual demand in the USSR being 180,000–200,000 units.

Table 1. Brief specifications for some power saws produced in the USSR
 When producedEngine power, killowattsWeight, kilograms
Gasoline-powered saws   
Druzhba-60 .......1960–622.611.31
Druzhba-4........since 196331241
MP-5 Ural ........since 1969411.61
Electric saws   
EP-K5 ..........1949–571.59
EP-K6 ..........since 19581.79.3
EPCh-3..........since 197039.5

Transport facilities are subdivided into primary transport, which is used to skid (or carry) cut lumber from the felling site to the loading points near logging roads, and transport used to ship wood over logging roads. Skidding tractors equipped with loading gates, power winches, and trailer attachments (chokers) are used for initial transport. In the USSR the KT-12, the first special crawler-type skidding tractor, was developed in the late 1940’s. In subsequent years more powerful and advanced skidding tractors were developed (see Table 2).

Table 2. Brief specifications of skidding tractors produced in the USSR
 When producedPower (kilowatts)Weight (tons)
KT-12 ............1947–56265.6
TDT-40 ...........1956–6131.56.5
TDT-40M..........since 196137.56.5
TDT-55...........since 196544.58.7
TDT-60 ...........1958–624510.5
TDT-75...........since 19625610.5
TT-4.............since 19738112.5

Wheeled tractors are more maneuverable and faster than crawler-type tractors. The K-703 and T-157 transport skidding modifications were developed on the basis of series-produced general-purpose wheel tractors (prime movers). To eliminate manual coupling and uncoupling for skidding, the tractors are equipped with hydromechanical devices instead of chokers. For example, the TB-1 and LP-11-1 (based on the TDT-55 and TT-4 tractors) are fitted with hydromanipulators, and the T-157 wheeled collector tractors are fitted with hydraulic claws. Cable units driven by LL-12, LL-14, and LL-8 skidding winches are used for transport in mountain forests and marshy forests. Logging vehicles such as the VTM-4 roller-skidding vehicle and the LP-2 roller-bundling vehicle also are used for initial transport.

The equipment for initial processing of wood is subdivided into mobile and permanent types. Mobile equipment usually is installed at logging sites or temporary lumber yards. This includes LO-25 pruning units and SM-2 and SM-55 mobile trimmers. In some cases crosscutting and bark strippers and equipment for producing industrial chips are used. Fixed equipment is used at permanent lumber yards. PSL-2M semiautomatic units and MSG-2 units for large-scale pruning, which handle 20–25 and 100–125 cu m of wood per hour respectively, are used for pruning. The bucking and sorting of tree-length logs is carried out on the PLKh-3AS and LO-15S lengthwise-feed semiautomatic lines with a capacity of 25–30 cu m per hour. The KTs-7 chopper is used to halve blocks, the GK-2 hydraulic chopper splits them into halves or quarters, and the LO-46 hydraulic chopper splits them into halves, quarters, or sixths. The sorting and shipping of lumber are carried out by lengthwise chain transporters with semiautomatic dumping units. The OK-36, OK-63, OK-40B, and LO-23 bark strippers are used for removing bark.

Logging enterprises are outfitted with specialized equipment: frame saws, railroad tie-cutting machines, various woodworking machine tools, crushers, and equipment for the production of fiberboard and particle board.

Timber loaders and stackers are used for stacking and loading wood in the logging process.

Auxiliary structures and units such as scaffold bridges, crane-ways and spur tracks, access routes, and platforms are built for the normal and efficient operation of logging equipment. Portable sheds—preventive maintenance buildings, rebuilding-repair shops, and fueling and heating units—are used for technical maintenance and repair of vehicles in the forest. There are also permanent machine shops equipped with a complement of standard machine tools and other repair equipment.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Strike has mobilised the Schlumberger wireline unit and a range of logging equipment to site and will commence evaluation of the second intermediate section.
PLCN alleged that local authorities had openly allowed loggers to transport timber and logging equipment via numerous makeshift trucks on a daily basis, while powerful individuals and newcomers had cleared the forest and wild animals' habitats for private ownership.
In December 2018, the company signed a definitive agreement to sell all of its surface data logging equipment, technology and associated contracts to Excellence Logging.
As part of the agreement, Weatherford will sell all of its surface data logging equipment, technology and associated contracts and will transfer the related personnel to Excellence Logging.
Those jobs include packaging and filling machine operators, ophthalmic laboratory technicians, logging equipment operators, slaughterers and meat packers and movie projectionists.<br />However, the report concludes, nearly 1.2 million jobs statewide could have 80 percent or more of their tasks performed by machines in the coming decades.
The study requires dozens of vehicles to be equipped with driver-facing cameras and data logging equipment. It has modified more than two dozen vehicles, mostly Tesla Model S.
At 23 I was working in Siberia for an oilfield services company, then at 26 was in Nigeria repairing oil well logging equipment. When I met my wife during this time, we spent the first six months of our relationship on different continents and although I settled down a little bit, I then worked for Fugro, travelling the world on vessels carrying out geophysical surveys.
Early experiences with logging equipment and pellet mills showed that excessive silica abrades steel surfaces.
"We're excited about launching ForesTree Equipment Trader and what it brings to logging equipment owners and dealers," says DK Knight, Hatton-Brown Publishers' Co-Publisher.
They are for the most part loose gravel surfaced and were constructed to allow logging equipment to access the forests.
During the past years, early researchers in China has developed several test equipment for logging tools, such as multiple function test tables for well-logging instruments (Lu et al., 2005), development of the self-test unit for EIlog complete logging equipment (Yan et al., 2008).