# Logic circuits

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## Logic circuits

Electronic circuits which process information encoded as one of a limited set of voltage or current levels. Logic circuits are the basic building blocks used to realize consumer and industrial products that incorporate digital electronics. Such products include digital computers, video games, voice synthesizers, pocket calculators, and robot controls. See Integrated circuits

All logic circuits may be described in terms of three fundamental elements, shown graphically in the illustration. The not element has one input and one output; as the name suggests, the output generated is the opposite of the input in binary. In other words, a 0 input value causes a 1 to appear at the output; a 1 input results in a 0 output. (All signals are interpreted to be one of only two values, denoted as 0 and 1.)

The and element has an arbitrary number of inputs and a single output. As the name suggests, the output becomes 1 if, and only if, all of the inputs are 1; otherwise the output is 0. The and together with the not circuit therefore enables searching for a particular combination of binary signals.

The third element is the or function. As with the and , an arbitrary number of inputs may exist and one output is generated. The or output is 1 if one or more inputs are 1.

The operations of and and or have some analogies to the arithmetic operations of multiplication and addition, respectively. The collection of mathematical rules and properties of these operations is called boolean algebra.

While the not, and , and or functions have been designed as individual circuits in many circuit families, by far the most common functions realized as individual circuits are the nand and nor circuits of the illustration. A nand may be described as equivalent to an and element driving a not element. Similarly, a nor is equivalent to an or element driving a not element.

As the names of the logic elements described suggest, logic circuits respond to combinations of input signals. Logic networks which are interconnected so that the current set of output signals is responsive only to the current set of input signals are appropriately termed combinational logic. An important further capability for processing information is memory, or the ability to store information. The logic circuits themselves must provide a memory function if information is to be manipulated at the speeds the logic is capable of. Logic circuit networks that include feedback paths to retain information are termed sequential logic networks, since outputs are in part dependent on the prior input signals applied and in particular on the sequence in which the signals were applied.

Several alternatives exist for the digital designer to create a digital system. Two common realizations are ready-made catalog-order devices, which can be combined as building blocks, and custom-designed devices. Gate-array devices comprise a two-dimensional array of logic cells, each equivalent to one or a few logic gates. Programmable logic arrays have the potential for realizing any of a large number of different sets of logic functions. In table look-up, the collection of input signals are grouped arbitrarily as address digits to a memory device. Finally, the last form of logic network embodiment is the microcomputer. See Microcomputer

There are basically two logic circuit families in widespread use: bipolar and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS). See Transistor

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Xia, "Low power adiabatic logic circuits with feedback structure using three-phase power supply," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems, vol.
Engineers are therefore seeking alternatives to CMOS that would allow for highly efficient computer logic circuits that generate much less heat.
The switch plane is composed of NanoBridges that configure LSI interconnects and NanoBridges that configure the logic circuit. The logic plane features newly developed programmable logic from NEC that has the same functionality as conventional programmable logic even though it is smaller in size.
In subthreshold logic circuits operate with a supply voltage FDD lower than the transistor threshold voltage VT and utilize the subthreshold leakage current as the operating current.
The trapezoidal power clock based efficient charge recovery logic (ECRL) , clocked adiabatic logic circuits (CAL) , and positive feedback adiabatic logic (PFAL) circuits  suffer from floating output nodes, problem of current leakage, and charge sharing.
Logic circuits such as those on a computer chip are best suited by a ratio of about 2.
Internal structure of FPGA can be represented by a set of programmable logic blocks that can carry out basic logic functions and by the help of reconfigurable interconnections, can implement various complex logic circuits. FPGAs logic blocks also include D-type flip-flops that can implement various memory elements.
The new receiver equalizer control method also obviates the matrix multiplication needed in previous methods, as it can work using only scalar addition and subtraction, thus enabling simpler logic circuits which can be implemented even on a small area.
Other areas covered include combinational and sequential logic circuits and data conversion devices and circuits.
With further manipulation, the team has persuaded the neurons to mimic electronic logic circuits based on silicon.
From such organic polymer electronics, Garnier envisions "pocket-sized |smart' cards with plastic logic circuits." He also sees "car and airplane windshields that can display information," as well as "a large flat panel display, like a television, that you could roll up."
Self-timed defines a logic circuits that be subject to on and/or engineer timing assumptions for the correct operation.

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