Lolium


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Lolium

 

(ryegrass), a genus of perennial or annual herbs of the family Gramineae. The inflorescence is a two-ranked spike, and the spikelets are multiflorous and laterally compressed, that is, appressed to the spike’s axis on the narrow side. There are approximately 15 species (according to some data, as many as 40), which are distributed primarily in the temperate zone of Eurasia and North Africa.

Nine species are found in the USSR. The English ryegrass (L. perenne) is found in damp meadows, on slopes, and in gardens and parks in the European USSR, the Caucasus, Western Siberia, and Middle Asia. One of the best forage grasses, it is cultivated for pasturage and hay. The English ryegrass withstands trampling and grows quickly after being grazed. For these reasons, it is also used for lawns. Other valuable forage grasses include the Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) and L persicum, which are found in the Caucasus, and L. rigidum, which grows in the Caucasus and Middle Asia. The darnel (L. temulentum) is widely distributed in the northern and central regions of the European USSR and in Transcaucasia, southwestern Siberia, and the Far East. It grows as an annual weed among spring grain crops. The darnel and several other species of Lolium are usually toxic to humans and livestock (except swine, ducks, and chickens) because of the development in the caryopses of the fungus Stromantinia temulenta, which produces the alkaloid temulin. When flour containing L. temulentum is used, the product may cause poisoning, manifested by dizziness, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, and convulsions. L. remotum, which is distributed throughout the European USSR and the southern Far East, grows as an annual weed among flax plantings. Measures to control the weed species of Lolium include cleaning the seed material and early autumn plowing.

REFERENCES

Kormovye rasteniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Kott, S. A. Sornye rasteniia i bor’ba s nimi, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1961.

T. V. EGOROVA

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None of the studies of C cycling under Lolium perenne described earlier (Saggar et al.
Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo avaliar a atividade fitotoxica dos extratos metanolicos na germinacao e desenvolvimento da parte vegetativa de sementes de Lactuca sativa, Amaranthus hybridus, Lolium perenne, Ipomoea purpurea e Bidens odorata.
Lolium perenne, Lolium arundinaceum) due to the production of peramine and loline alkaloids (reviewed by Schardl et al.
Effects of fungal endophytes on interspecific and intraspecific competition in the grasses Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne.
Cook A, Marriott CA, Seel W, Mullins CE (1996) Effects of mechanical impedance on root and shoot growth of Lolium perenne L.
Especies caracteristicas: Geranium dissectum, Erodium cicutarium, Lolium perenne, L.
Three land use systems were selected: prairie with the grass Lolium multiflorum (Ryegrass), pasture with Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu) and secondary forest.
1996), which combines good agronomic characters of Lolium with the drought resistance of Festuca.
This decrease of the initial efficiency of the genus Lolium can help, in later success ional stages, to avoid its dominance, which arise in good conditions at the expense of plant diversity (Andres et al.
His subject was the grass, Lolium temulentum, which stubbornly refuses to flower until a certain day in spring, when daylength exceeds some critical threshold.
However, lack of correlation is largely determined by outlying values for a few species that showed quite high RGR values, but very low RGR responses: namely, Taraxacum and Plantago, as well as the grass Lolium.