Lollards


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Related to Lollards: Council of Constance, Hussites
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lollards

 

participants in a 14th-century peasant-plebeian movement in England and in certain other Western European countries as well; the movement took on the character of an anti-Catholic heresy.

The Lollards first appeared in Antwerp around 1300. They emerged in England in the early 1360’s (the preaching of J. Ball), although the term “Lollards” was first used officially in English sources in 1387. Intensification of social contradictions during the second half of the 14th century facilitated the rise of the Lollards. Preaching on village streets and in market areas, the Lollards, following the example of J. Wycliffe, rejected the privileges of the Catholic Church and called for the secularization of its property. At the same time, the Lollards considerably increased the social resonance of their preaching. They sharply criticized the injustices of the feudal structure, demanding the elimination of the corvée, the tithe, and taxes and the equalization of estates. Though the Lollards never came out with a direct appeal for an uprising, their preaching helped shape the popular masses’ social demands.

The Lollards played an important role in the ideological preparation of the Wat Tyler revolt of 1381, and J. Ball served as one of its leaders. Suppression of the revolt was followed by persecution of the Lollards; executions began after the adoption of a statute in 1401 on the burning of heretics. Many Lollards were forced to resettle on the Continent and in Scotland. In England itself there remained supporters of the Lollards right up to the beginning of the 16th century, thereby facilitating the preparation of the English Reformation.

REFERENCES

Petrushevskii, D. M. Vosstanie Uota Tailera, 4th ed. Moscow, 1937.
Gairdner, J. Lallardy and the Reformation in England...., vols. 1–4. London, 1908–13.

G. R. LEVIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lollards

in late medieval England, a name given to followers of unorthodox philosopher John Wycliffe. [Christian Hist.: EB, VI: 306]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(428-31) Lumiansky and Mills gloss 'lowlers' as Lollards and note that the word 'picks up the emphasis on heresy seen elsewhere in the play'.
After all, Lollards and Catholics had shared concerns and the veneration of images was as fraught for Roman Christians as it was for English Lollards.
Texts such as "The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards" strive to set out the truth "plainly": this and this and this are what is important and necessary.
"The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards" is incorporated into the anti-Lollard tract of Roger Dymok in Trinity Hall MS 17.
As many critics have argued, the Jewish characters do not stand in for Lollards. (21) Rather, they are bound up in traditions of representation.
In which building was The Lollards' Tower, traditionally used as a prison for religious dissenters?
More actively engaged Reformation proselytizers appeared to create novels about the pre-Protestant life of John Wycliffe and the Lollards (1328-1384).
Some in the Roman Catholic hierarchy called her a heretic--a Lollard. (The Lollards, who were prevalent during Kempe's era, questioned the doctrine of transubstantiation.) Still others considered Kempe a saint.
The selections are not limited to the narrowly orthodox: Cathars, Lollards, and Waldensians are represented, as are Beghards and Beguines, controversial visionaries (chapter 37) as well as recognized saints.
Well-known as a key theological work opposing the teaching of Wyclif and the Lollards, Netter's massive treatise receives new consideration in this study.
The English religious reformers known as Lollards maintained that the veneration paid to representations of God and the saints, to relics, and to the Eucharist were acts of idolatry that violated the Decalogue's command not to worship images.
Heroes include Lollards, Hampden, the Levellers, John Wilkes, Fox, the Chartists, and the suffragettes.