Lollards


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Related to Lollards: Council of Constance, Hussites

Lollards

 

participants in a 14th-century peasant-plebeian movement in England and in certain other Western European countries as well; the movement took on the character of an anti-Catholic heresy.

The Lollards first appeared in Antwerp around 1300. They emerged in England in the early 1360’s (the preaching of J. Ball), although the term “Lollards” was first used officially in English sources in 1387. Intensification of social contradictions during the second half of the 14th century facilitated the rise of the Lollards. Preaching on village streets and in market areas, the Lollards, following the example of J. Wycliffe, rejected the privileges of the Catholic Church and called for the secularization of its property. At the same time, the Lollards considerably increased the social resonance of their preaching. They sharply criticized the injustices of the feudal structure, demanding the elimination of the corvée, the tithe, and taxes and the equalization of estates. Though the Lollards never came out with a direct appeal for an uprising, their preaching helped shape the popular masses’ social demands.

The Lollards played an important role in the ideological preparation of the Wat Tyler revolt of 1381, and J. Ball served as one of its leaders. Suppression of the revolt was followed by persecution of the Lollards; executions began after the adoption of a statute in 1401 on the burning of heretics. Many Lollards were forced to resettle on the Continent and in Scotland. In England itself there remained supporters of the Lollards right up to the beginning of the 16th century, thereby facilitating the preparation of the English Reformation.

REFERENCES

Petrushevskii, D. M. Vosstanie Uota Tailera, 4th ed. Moscow, 1937.
Gairdner, J. Lallardy and the Reformation in England...., vols. 1–4. London, 1908–13.

G. R. LEVIN

Lollards

in late medieval England, a name given to followers of unorthodox philosopher John Wycliffe. [Christian Hist.: EB, VI: 306]
References in periodicals archive ?
For a placement of Askew's writing in the tradition of similar accounts written by Lollards, see Kendall, 123-26.
As Strohm establishes, the Lollard threat was crucial to the Lancastrian identification with the defence of orthodoxy -- so crucial, in fact, that Strohm notes that if the Lollards had not existed the Lancastrians would have had to invent them.
Her accounts of, say, incidents involving the Lollards or the disputes between
During the period in which CP and the "Trial" are thought to have been composed, those most frequently accused of spreading sedition were the Lollards.
There are flashes of dry wit: "To judge by the amount of interest that has been shown in them, the English religious landscape of the late Middle Ages was peopled largely by Lollards, witches, and leisured, aristocratic ladies" (2).
He takes for granted the fact that the pious individuals who owned the primers and made the wills represented the norm of their society, as opposed to the sceptics, Lollards, and drunken priests who have featured prominently in the work of other scholars.
However, the brothers and sisters also presented particular interpretative problems to their contemporaries, who called them Lollards or beguines, largely because they struggled to find other terminology to do justice to these small communities of men and women.
Amongst her clues are possible references to the Wycliffe's translation of the Bible, specific allusions to Lollards, and themes of Lollardism, including he language of sin and redemption, penitential language, legal terms, and the language of persecution.
Both of these works "vilify Lollards in the context of confessions" (101), yet both are confessional poems.
And then, in the court records of the diocese of York, Dickens discovered popular heresy -- ordinary Yorkshire people who were late Lollards and early Protestants.
Lollards surface again in Rita Copeland's warning that diachronic perspective is likely to be one of the first casualties of our largely synchronic analysis of late-medieval English religious dissent.
Thomson's summary of abjured or convicted London Lollards between 1482 and 1511 yields about thirty names, and he notes "there were heresy proceedings in London of which no record is preserved" (154).