Lombard effect

Lombard effect

[′lum‚bärd i‚fekt]
(acoustics)
The change in a talker's articulation effort when he or she speaks in a noisy environment; for example, trying to raise the voice or to make the voice better understood by the listener.
References in periodicals archive ?
It should be noted that absolute values are not necessarily representative of real word results since the Lombard effect was not considered before mixing the speech with the noise.
As with the first study, absolute values are not necessarily representative of real word results since the Lombard effect was not considered before mixing the speech with the noise.
The Lombard effect is probably familiar to anyone who has ever heard someone who is wearing headphones try to talk, but not all animals show it--frogs don't seem to, for instance.
The Lombard effect has been reported to cause measureable differences in vowel intensity and duration, and also in formant frequencies: ambient noise elevates the speech amplitude by 5-10 dB, increases word durations by 10-20%, and increases significantly the F1 and F2 frequencies, thus causing a shift in the vowel space (van Summers, Pisoni, Bernacki, Pedlow, Stokes 1988; Castellanos, Benedi, Casacuberta 1996; Beckford Wassink, Wright, Franklin 2007).
Second, the Lombard effect induced by the two different noise masks caused the duration of the short vowels, but not the long ones, to increase significantly.
Third, the Lombard effect resulted in an increase in the F1 of the mid-high vowels, but had no effect on the Euclidean distances of the short and long vowels.
A description of the Lombard effect (singers unable to hear their own voices are more likely to oversing) is a helpful insertion.
The Lombard effect occurs not only in human adults, but in young children, primates, and even quail.
UT-Scope: Speech under Lombard Effect and Cognitive Stress," in Aerospace Conference, 2007 IEEE, vol.
For instance, choral singers are warned of the dangers of trying to carry the section or the ensemble, and the hazards of the Lombard effect.