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abnormal wakefulness or inability to sleepsleep,
resting state in which an individual becomes relatively quiescent and relatively unaware of the environment. During sleep, which is in part a period of rest and relaxation, most physiological functions such as body temperature, blood pressure, and rate of breathing and
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. The condition may result from illness or physical discomfort, or it may be caused by stimulants such as coffee or drugs. However, frequently some psychological factor, such as worry or tension, is the cause. Mild insomnia may often be relieved by a soothing activity like reading or listening to soft music. Chronic or severe insomnia requires treatment of the underlying physical or psychological disorder. In a few, very rare cases, individuals in certain families are subject to an incurable inherited insomia caused by prions that form plaques in the thalamusthalamus
, mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brain just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. The thalamus is a routing station for all incoming sensory impulses except those of smell, transmitting them to higher (cerebral) nerve centers.
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; the disease appears suddenly in adulthood and ultimately is fatal.

Many patients respond to the assurance that their sleeplessness is a result of normal anxieties or a treatable physical disorder. Opportunities to ventilate anxieties often ease distress and helps resume normal sleeping patterns. Elderly persons are encourage to exercise more during the day; instructed relaxation, administration of tryptophan, and intake of warm milk helps some patients sleep. Sedatives and hypnotics drugs may be employed if the sleeplessness is impairing the subject's sense of well being. Those who wake because of pain receive an analgesic at bedtime; for those who experience insomnia accompanied with depression, an antidepressant often suffices.



(also agrypnia), disturbed sleep. Insomnia manifests itself as a shortening of the period of nocturnal sleep, delay in onset of sleep, early awakening, and repeated interruption of sleep during the night. Sleep is also impaired qualitatively; it becomes more superficial, the length of deep sleep is diminished, and the balance between dream-sleep and dreamless sleep is upset. Insomnia occurs in cases of neurosis, certain cardiovascular and psychological illnesses, neuro infections, and injury to those parts of the brain that regulate the correct alternation of sleep and wakefulness. In healthy people, it may occur after great physical or mental stress, fatigue, strong emotional experiences, and similar instances. The total absence of nocturnal or daytime sleep for long durations almost never occurs.

Treatment involves adherence to the correct regimen of work and rest, the elimination of irritating factors, bathing, and exercise. The patient may be prescribed tranquilizers and, in cases of persistent insomnia, soporifics. In cases of insomnia caused by illness, treatment consists in eliminating the original illness responsible for the insomnia.


Pervov, L. G. Son i ego narushenie, Moscow, 1965.
Fedotov, D. D. Son i ego rasstroistvo. Moscow, 1966.



Sleeplessness; disturbed sleep; prolonged inability to sleep.


The inability to sleep. If you suffer from it, the solution is to look up all the terms under "standards" in this encyclopedia. Dozing should occur shortly. If that does not work... well, at least you will become the computer guru on your block!
References in periodicals archive ?
Long live the king: under Gemunder's guidance the leading provider of pharmaceutical products to the long term care industry had another banner year in 2004 and early 2005.
While consumers face inadequate coverage of nursing homes and other long term care costs that can reach $4,500 or more per month, the current system is equally precarious for long term care providers.
The laptops were important because Kollmann, SCTC's Past Director of Nursing Jan Hooper, and Kathy Gilbride, who was the director of SCTC's Center for Customized Training and Development when the program started, decided that Long Term Care Connections would be supplemented with additional Web-based training materials.
Another issue affecting long term care is the absence of a nationally implemented product-classification system for standardized universal-product and health-information numbers.
Medicaid requires that private assets above a certain threshold must be spent for long term care and exhausted before the client can become eligible for Medicaid funds.
Second, we have to infuse long term care with a reliable source of private financing for assisted living and nursing homes.
Citizens For Long Term Care and The Long Term Care Campaign do not endorse candidates.
The Civil Service Long Term Care Insurance Benefit Act (HR 602), introduced by Representative Joe Scarborough (R-Fla.
That, though, will change by summer, when a hybrid company called Long Term Care Partners, LLC, will offer group rate long-term care insurance to the families of more than 20 million federal government employees and retirees.
The piece that would encourage federal retirees to get long term care insurance looks like it's going to happen, too," says Scott Parkin, a spokesperson for the American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging.