The CP histograms, shown in Figure 5, were analyzed by NOVA software using a

Lorentzian function. The obtained contact potential average peaks were -80 mV, -260 mV, and -227 mV for samples S1, S2, and S3, respectively, with Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of 0,06-0,09 V for all samples.

where f() is the

Lorentzian function and g() is the normal distribution function.

The incoherent scattering function [S.sub.inc](Q, [omega]) in the elastic region is usually separated into an elastic "delta" component, [A.sub.0](Q)[delta]([omega]), and a quasi-elastic component, [A.sub.1](Q)L([omega]), where L([omega]) is a

Lorentzian function, centered on [omega] = 0.

Brendel-Bormann reduces the errors generated from the

Lorentzian function adopted in Drude by adopting a Gaussian complex error method instead [40].

In this section, we shall briefly describe INMS method for unconstrained parametric optimization of modified

Lorentzian function given by [11]; (8)

From the grating theory it is known that for the given configuration, the resonance curve is a

Lorentzian function [6, 17].

The line profile for stark broadened is well described by a

Lorentzian function. Since the instrumental line-broadening exhibit Gaussian shape, then the stark line width [DELTA][[lambda].sub.FWHM] can be extracted from the measured line width [DELTA][[lambda].sub.observed] by subtracting the instrumental line broadening [DELTA][[lambda].sub.instrument]:

The width of the diffraction peaks at half-maximum height was calculated by applying a

Lorentzian function to the XRD data, and the crystallite size, D, was estimated by calculating the width of the diffraction peaks according to the Scherrer equation:

Since each resonant mode in a Schumann power spectrum can be approximated by a

Lorentzian function [36,37], the magnetic resonant spectrum can be expressed approximately as a superposition of

Lorentzian functions obtained by least-squares fitting.

A personal fitting least-square procedure based on a

Lorentzian function adjustment is used to process spectral data and decompose the bands into their wavenumber position, absolute intensity, full-width at half maximum and integrated intensity.

Various profile functions can be adopted for crystallite size and microstrain and commonly take the form of a

Lorentzian function or a Gaussian function.

Equation (35) is actually a

Lorentzian function with peak position and full width at half maximum 2[[pi].sub.[lambda]].