Lot Production

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lot Production


a form of organization of production wherein an enterprise simultaneously manufactures a broad assortment of products of the same kind and the production process is repeated over a long period of time. Lot production is used most widely in machine building and metalworking. (In Russian, lots of complex articles are called serii, and lots of parts, or components, are partii.) The manufacture of lots of products having the same standard dimensions is usually repeated at regular intervals. After one or more lots have been produced, changes are often made before the production of a new lot begins: the design may be altered, modifications may be made in the production process, or work stations may be rearranged and workers’ skills improved. Lot production permits standardization of the design of parts and articles and makes possible the reduction of production processes and equipment to a few common types.

Depending on the quantity of products in the lot, a distinction is made between large-lot, medium-lot, and small-lot production.

In large-lot production, the product is manufactured continuously, in large quantities, for a period that is generally longer than a year. The enterprise specializes in the production of thoroughly mastered articles or of individual subassemblies or parts. Each shop of the enterprise specializes in the production of a particular item. Each work station specializes in a particular operation. This method of production makes extensive use of specialized machinery, production lines, and such means of automation as conveyers and feeders. Large-lot production permits the organization of preparatory operations on a scientific basis; such operations are assigned to a separate stage. The group of preparatory operations includes the design of the article and its parts, the development of new production processes, and the manufacture of tools and accessories. Large-lot production is similar in character to mass production.

In medium-lot production, specialization is limited by the manufacture of a smaller assortment of products. Production lines and shops are specialized with respect to the products manufactured and the production processes used. Preproduc-tion preparation is generally separate from the basic manufacturing process. Medium-lot production is characteristic of, for example, the building of machine tools and motors and the manufacture of many types of rolled ferrous and nonferrous metal products.

Small-lot production is a transitional form between unit production and the manufacture of products in moderate-sized lots. The manufacture of articles or individual parts generally occurs once and is not repeated. The sizes of the lots vary. The scale of the product is limited to existing orders or contracts. For this reason, the manufacture of a particular product ends comparatively quickly, and a new product is then introduced into manufacture. Small-lot production is used, for example, in the manufacture of some special-purpose alloys and rolled products and in the manufacture of small lots of articles or machines intended for experimentation under various conditions. Small-lot production differs from experimental production, which is generally limited to the manufacture of a single sample.

Because of its technical and organizational characteristics, lot production has a number of economic advantages over unit production: the production is shortened, product quality is improved, labor productivity is raised, and costs are lowered. These advantages result in increased efficiency of social production.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
BTP supports major SATCOM integrators with specialised RF engineering, small lot production, and RF testing services.
Horsten adds We are also developing a complete end-to-end solution that will not only reduce the time required for prototyping and small lot production but will also significantly reduce costs and enable a faster time to market.
Yet, it is difficult to find examples relating to the piece and small lot production, especially based on adapting conventional SPC tools.
This development is expected to lead to small lot production of a diverse range of products requiring corrosion resistance such as medical materials, and the expansion into industrial products with specialized components in areas requiring heat resistance such as the automotive industry and the aerospace industry.
Waste of inventories is material between operations as a result of large lot production or processes with long cycle times.
Al Taif Technical Services will exhibit its systems engineering and integration capabilities for defense systems, as well as a range of their prototyping and small lot production of critical components in support of its MRO activities and Bayanat for Mapping & Surveying Services will showcase their fully integrated end-to-end geospatial services that include aerial, hydrographic and field surveying and geodesy, spatial data management, various types of maps (topographic, hydrographic and aeronautical) and 2D & 3D data models production in addition to related advisory services.
The MPX-90M is designed for small lot production, and is ideal for small to mid-size manufacturers as well as for hospitals, sterilization centers, and others that need to mark existing tools in use at their facilities.
The state-of-the-art machine creates prototypes or concept parts with precision tolerances, provides small lot production capabilities and tool making capabilities for repeat and long-run production.
However, such single lot production would not be beneficial if the set up costs are high and switching from product to product in a production environment would result in wasted resources or loss in throughput.
Maruti which is facing a lot production constraints has announced that it will reorient the production of 'Swift' and 'DZiRE' in its two facilities at Gurgaon and Manesar to enhance output.
Section 2 covers eight elements of lean production, such as small lot production, setup-time reduction, pull production systems, and workcells and cellular manufacturing.