Lothair II

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Lothair II,

also called

Lothair III,

1075–1137, Holy Roman emperor (1133–37) and German king (1125–37); successor of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. His predecessor invested him with the duchy of Saxony in 1106, but after 1112 Lothair, in several rebellions, successfully championed local independence against the royal authority. When Henry V died (1125), the electorselectors,
in the history of the Holy Roman Empire, the princes who had the right to elect the German kings or, more exactly, the kings of the Romans (Holy Roman emperors).
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 chose Lothair over Frederick of HohenstaufenHohenstaufen
, German princely family, whose name is derived from the castle of Staufen built in 1077 by a Swabian count, Frederick. In 1079, Frederick married Agnes, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and was created duke of Swabia.
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, Henry V's nephew, to succeed him; this represented an important victory of elective over hereditary kingship. Frederick and his brother Conrad (who later became German king as Conrad IIIConrad III,
c.1093–1152, German king (1138–52), son of Frederick, duke of Swabia, and Agnes, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV; first of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
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) made war on Lothair, and Conrad was elected (1127) antiking. However, Lothair and his son-in-law, Henry the ProudHenry the Proud,
c.1108–1139, duke of Bavaria (1126–38) and of Saxony (1137–38). A member of the Guelph family, he inherited the duchy of Bavaria and enormous private wealth.
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 of Bavaria, defeated the Hohenstaufen and peace was made in 1135. In Italy, Lothair promised his support to Pope Innocent IIInnocent II,
d. 1143, pope (1130–43), a Roman named Gregorio Papareschi; successor of Honorius II. He was created cardinal by Paschal II. On the death of Honorius II, a faction of the cardinals elected him pope.
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, whose election was disputed. In 1132 he entered Italy and was crowned emperor in Rome (1133). After the defeat of the Hohenstaufen he returned (1136) to Italy and campaigned successfully against Roger II of Sicily, supporter of the antipope Anacletus II. Lothair died on the journey home. As emperor, Lothair adhered loyally to the Concordat of Worms (see Worms, Concordat ofWorms, Concordat of,
1122, agreement reached by Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V to put an end to the struggle over investiture. By its terms the emperor guaranteed free election of bishops and abbots and renounced the right to invest them with ring and staff, the
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), and actively supported both political expansion and revival of missionary activity in the East. He forced various heathen princes to pay tribute and established German suzerainty in Denmark, Bohemia, and Poland (see Boleslaus IIIBoleslaus III,
1085–1138, duke of Poland (1102–38). The kingdom had been divided by his father, Ladislaus Herman, between Boleslaus and his elder brother Zbigniew, whose legitimacy was disputed.
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). At his death his rival, Conrad III, was elected king. Lothair is known also as Lothair of Saxony or Lothair of Supplinburg.
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Lothair II

called the Saxon. ?1070--1137, German king (1125--37) and Holy Roman Emperor (1133--37). He was elected German king over the hereditary Hohenstaufen claimant
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005