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Saint Louis(lo͞o`ĭs), city (1990 pop. 396,685), independent and in no county, E Mo., on the Mississippi River below the mouth of the Missouri; inc. as a city 1822. St. Louis has long been a major industrial and transportation hub. It is a leading rail and trucking center, and its airport and river port are among the country's busiest. Its industries produce a variety of manufactures, including chemicals; consumer goods; motor vehicles and parts; electronic components; foods and beverages; textiles; shoes; paper, plastic, and metal products; paints; soap and detergents; hardware; and pharmaceuticals. St. Louis is also a wholesale, banking, and financial center.
Institutions and Landmarks
The city has a noted symphony orchestra, a municipal opera, a large botanical garden, and over 30 educational institutions, including Saint Louis Univ., Washington Univ., three theological seminaries, and a branch of the Univ. of Missouri. The city's large Forest Park has an open-air theater, an art museum, a zoo, a planetarium, and the Jefferson memorial building, which recalls the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904 (the "St. Louis Fair"). Also in the city are two museums of contemporary art, the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts and the Contemporary Art Museum, and the popular and eclectic City Museum, housed in a former shoe warehouse. St. Louis is also home to the National League's Cardinals and the National Hockey League's Blues.
The major attraction is Gateway Arch (completed 1965), a stainless steel arch, 630 ft (192 m) high, designed by Eero SaarinenSaarinen, Eero
, 1910–61, Finnish-American architect, grad. Yale (B.A., 1934), became an American citizen in 1940; son of Eliel Saarinen. Saarinen's reputation was established with his design of the General Motors Technical Center, Warren, Mich. (1951–55).
..... Click the link for more information. . Standing on the banks of the Mississippi, it symbolizes St. Louis as the gateway to the West. Gateway Arch National ParkGateway Arch National Park,
90.9 acres (36.8 hectares), St. Louis, Mo., est. 1935 as Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, designated a national park and renamed 2018. Located on the Mississippi, the park commemorates the Louisiana Purchase and St.
..... Click the link for more information. , established in 1935 as Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, also preserves such historical buildings as the old courthouse (1839–64), where the Dred Scott CaseDred Scott Case,
argued before the U.S. Supreme Court in 1856–57. It involved the then bitterly contested issue of the status of slavery in the federal territories. In 1834, Dred Scott, a black slave, personal servant to Dr. John Emerson, a U.S.
..... Click the link for more information. was tried. The poet Eugene FieldField, Eugene,
1850–95, American poet and journalist, b. St. Louis. After working on several Midwestern newspapers, in 1883 he became a columnist for the Chicago Daily News (later the Record).
..... Click the link for more information. was born in St. Louis; his house is a museum. New Cathedral is one of the country's largest Roman Catholic cathedrals. The massive Union Station, once the country's largest railroad terminal, now houses shops and a hotel.
Saint Louis was once the site of significant Native American mounds built during the Mississippian period (see Mound BuildersMound Builders,
in North American archaeology, name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts.
..... Click the link for more information. ), but they were nearly all leveled as the city grew. In 1763 the location was chosen (1763) by Pierre LaClede for a fur-trading post. To honor Louis XV of France, it was named for his "name" saint, Louis IX of France. Transferred to the Spanish in 1770, it was retroceded to France in the time of Napoleon I and then sold to the United States along with the other lands of the Louisiana PurchaseLouisiana Purchase,
1803, American acquisition from France of the formerly Spanish region of Louisiana. Reasons for the Purchase
The revelation in 1801 of the secret agreement of 1800, whereby Spain retroceded Louisiana to France, aroused uneasiness in the United
..... Click the link for more information. .
St. Louis, the gateway to the Missouri valley and the West, was the market and supply point for fur traders, mountain menmountain men,
fur trappers and traders in the Rocky Mts. during the 1820s and 30s. Their activities opened that region of the United States to general knowledge. Since the days of French domination there had been expeditions to the upper Missouri River, and in the early 19th
..... Click the link for more information. , and explorers (including Lewis and Clark). The town grew rapidly after the War of 1812, when immigrants came in numbers to settle the West. St. Louis grew to be one of the greatest U.S. river ports; even after the railroads arrived in the 1850s, the river steamers remained extremely important.
The city was at the height of its population immediately following World War II. Between 1950 and 1990 the central city population decreased by half, and industry declined significantly in the same period. While many of the outlying suburbs grew steadily and developed industries, some, such as East Saint LouisEast Saint Louis
, city (1990 pop. 40,944), St. Clair co., SW Ill., on the Mississippi River opposite St. Louis; inc. 1859. Once a rail and transportation hub with stockyards and warehouses, East St.
..... Click the link for more information. , have been marked by high unemployment and poverty.
See E. M. Coyle, Saint Louis (2d ed. 1970) and St. Louis Treasures (1986).
Louis, Saint:see Louis IXLouis IX
or Saint Louis,
1214–70, king of France (1226–70), son and successor of Louis VIII. His mother, Blanche of Castile, was regent during his minority (1226–34), and her regency probably lasted even after Louis reached his majority; she was his
..... Click the link for more information. , king of France.
Saint Louis (Independent City), Missouri
Saint Louis, MO 63103
Phone: (314) 622-3201
Fax: (314) 622-4061
On the central-eastern border of MO on the Mississippi River, 11 mi. below its confluence with the Missouri River. In 1763 site was selected by Pierre Laclede Liguest (1724?-78), partner in Maxent, Laclede and Company; settled 1764; chartered as city 1822. Busiest inland port on the Mississippi River; in early 1800s known as the "Gateway to the West." Manufacturing city (transportation equipment, automobile production); home of Anheuser-Busch, largest beer-producer in U.S. Name Origin: For Louis IX (1214-70), crusader king of France, canonized in 1297
Area (sq mi):: 66.15 (land 61.92; water 4.23) Population per square mile: 5561.40
Population 2005: 344,362 State rank: 3 Population change: 2000-20005 -1.10%; 1990-2000 -12.20% Population 2000: 348,189 (White 42.90%; Black or African American 51.20%; Hispanic or Latino 2.00%; Asian 2.00%; Other 3.00%). Foreign born: 5.60%. Median age: 33.70
Income 2000: per capita $16,108; median household $27,156; Population below poverty level: 24.60% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $24,685-$27,236
Unemployment (2004): 9.10% Unemployment change (from 2000): 0.90% Median travel time to work: 25.10 minutes Working outside county of residence: 41.40%
See other counties in Missouri.