Louis IX


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Related to Louis IX: Louis XIV, Louis XIII, Louis XV, Louis XI

Louis IX

or

Saint Louis,

1214–70, king of France (1226–70), son and successor of Louis VIII. His mother, Blanche of CastileBlanche of Castile
, 1185?–1252, queen of Louis VIII of France and regent during the minority (1226–34) of their son Louis IX. A forceful and capable ruler, she checked the coalitions of the great lords and frustrated the attempt (1230) of Henry III of England to
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, was regent during his minority (1226–34), and her regency probably lasted even after Louis reached his majority; she was his chief adviser until her death. During the early years of the reign, the queen mother suppressed several revolts of the great nobles, led by Pierre Mauclerc (Peter IPeter I
(Pierre Mauclerc), d. 1250, duke or count of Brittany (1213–37). The son of Robert II, count of Dreux, he married Alix, half-sister and heiress of Arthur I duke of Brittany.
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), duke of Brittany, and supported by Duke Raymond VIIRaymond VII,
1197–1249, count of Toulouse; son of Count Raymond VI. He fought with his father in the Albigensian Crusade (see under Albigenses), assisting Raymond VI in his attempt to regain Toulouse from Simon de Montfort and Simon's son, Amaury.
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 of Toulouse and King Henry IIIHenry III,
1207–72, king of England (1216–72), son and successor of King John. Reign
Early Years

Henry became king under a regency; William Marshal, 1st earl of Pembroke, and later Pandulf acted as chief of government, while Peter des Roches
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 of England. In 1240–43, Louis subdued new revolts in S France, securing the submission of Poitou and of Raymond VII, and repulsing a weak invasion (1242) by Henry III. Louis took the cross in 1244, but did not leave on the crusade to Egypt (the Seventh Crusade; see CrusadesCrusades
, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First Crusade
Origins

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar.
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) until 1248. Defeated and captured (1250) at al-Mansurah, he was ransomed but remained in the Holy Land until 1254, helping to strengthen the fortifications of the Christian colonies. After his return he attempted to bring about a peaceful settlement of territorial claims with Henry III. Agreement was reached in the Treaty of Paris, ratified in 1259. By its terms Louis ceded Limoges, Cahors, and Périgueux to Henry in exchange for Henry's renunciation of Normandy, Anjou, Maine, Touraine, and Poitou and his recognition of the king of France as suzerain for the reduced duchy of Aquitaine. Louis made a favorable treaty with King James I of Aragón by yielding the French claim to Roussillon and Barcelona in return for James's abandonment of his claim to Provence and Languedoc. A respected arbitrator, Louis settled succession disputes in Flanders and Hainaut and in Navarre; he attempted unsuccessfully to settle the bitter controversy between Henry III and the English barons by judging in favor of the king. In 1270, Louis undertook the Eighth Crusade, but he died soon after landing in Tunis. He was succeeded by his son, Philip III. Under Louis IX, France enjoyed unprecedented prosperity and peace. Louis continued the reforms of his grandfather, Philip II. He curbed private feudal warfare, simplified administration, improved the distribution of taxes, encouraged the use of Roman law, and extended the appellate jurisdiction of the crown to all cases. Louis was pious and ascetic, yet a good administrator and diplomat. He was canonized in 1297. Feast: Aug. 25.

Bibliography

See memoirs of his contemporary, Jean de JoinvilleJoinville, Jean, sire de
, 1224?–1317?, French chronicler, biographer of Louis IX of France (St. Louis). As seneschal (governor) of Champagne, Joinville was a close adviser to Louis, whom he accompanied (1248–54) on the Seventh Crusade.
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; biography by M. W. Labarge (1968); W. C. Jordan, Louis the Ninth (1979); J. Le Goff, Saint Louis (2009).

Louis IX

known as Saint Louis. 1214--70, king of France (1226--70): led the Sixth Crusade (1248--54) and was held to ransom (1250); died at Tunis while on another crusade
References in periodicals archive ?
Louis IX takes the throne at age 12, under the guardianship of his mother.
The Enseignements of Louis IX is not a narrative piece like King Horn or the Vita Sancti Ethelberti, but a representation, ostensibly a reportage, of Louis's speech, a sequence of his injunctions to his son.
Louis after King Louis IX, but a Spanish land grant to Thomas Shields in 1789 resulted in the town's name being changed to Shieldsboro.
It's different from the Children's Crusade, the disaster designed by our own patron saint, King Louis IX of France, as part of the first faith-based initiative back in the Middle Ages.
5-carat emerald was mounted in the Holy Crown of France by Louis IX in the 13th century.
Louis IX of France led the Sixth Crusade into Egypt, took Damietta and advanced down the Nile before the Mamluks stopped this army at Mansura.
Under the reign of Louis IX, in 1250, the first French brewers' guild incorporated and the government passed laws to regulate the brewing and selling of beer.
th t e crown Constt One of the most coveted relics of medieval Christianity, the crown was seized from Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1200 and later sold to French King Louis IX for 135,000 livres - nearly half the annual expenditure of France.
1231), Geoffrey of Beaulier's The Pilgrimage of Louis IX from Acre to Nazareth (March 1251), Matthew Paris' Itinerary from London to Jerusalem (1250-59), Buchard of Mount Sion's Description of the Holy Land (1274-85), and These are the Pilgrimages and Places of the Holy Land (13th century).
Both, finally, were royal advisors, and much of the book looks over their shoulders to the monarchs they served, especially Henry III and Louis IX.
9) The Miroir historial is a French translation, undertaken by Jean de Vignay at the request of Joan of Burgundy, of the Speculum historiale--a massive work written during the 13th century by Vincent of Beauvais, a Dominican monk who enjoyed the support of Louis IX.
They were both valued initially by Louis IX and Henry III for their administrative and diplomatic capablilities, yet both also had to maintain their abbeys' status as exempt from ecclesiastical jurisidiction.