Louis XII

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Louis XII,

1462–1515, king of France (1498–1515), son of Charles, duc d'OrléansOrléans, Charles, duc d'
, 1391–1465, French prince and poet; nephew of King Charles VI. After the assassination of his father, Louis d'Orléans, he became (1407) titular head of the Armagnacs (see Armagnacs and Burgundians).
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. He succeeded his father as duke. While still duke, he rebelled against the regency of Anne de Beaujeu and was imprisoned (1488), but was released (1491) by his cousin King Charles VIII, whom he succeeded (1498) on the throne. Immediately after his accession he ensured the continuance of the personal union of Brittany and France by having his first marriage annulled and marrying his predecessor's widow, Anne of BrittanyAnne of Brittany,
1477–1514, queen of France as consort of Charles VIII from 1491 to 1498 and consort of Louis XII from 1499 until her death. The daughter of Duke Francis II of Brittany, she was heiress to his duchy.
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. Thereafter the king and his minister, Georges d'AmboiseAmboise, Georges d'
, 1460–1510, French statesman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He became archbishop of Rouen in 1493. In 1498, as an intimate friend of the new king, Louis XII, he became chief minister.
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, attempted to assert French claims in Italy (see Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
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). Louis conquered Milan and Genoa, but he failed to secure Naples, which he had conquered in alliance with King Ferdinand IIFerdinand II
or Ferdinand the Catholic,
1452–1516, king of Aragón (1479–1516), king of Castile and León (as Ferdinand V, 1474–1504), king of Sicily (1468–1516), and king of Naples (1504–16).
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 of Aragón. By the treaties of Blois (1504), Louis attempted a compromise with Spain and with Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, who had so far remained an inactive opponent; the treaties subsequently collapsed, and the king's daughter Claude, whose marriage to Maximilian's grandson Charles of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) was to have been the keystone of the new entente, was betrothed to her cousin, Francis of Angoulême, later King Francis IFrancis I,
1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor
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. In 1507, Louis suppressed the revolt of Genoa (1506–7), and in 1508 he joined the League of Cambrai (see Cambrai, League ofCambrai, League of,
1508–10, alliance formed by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII of France, Pope Julius II, King Ferdinand V of Aragón, and several Italian city-states against the republic of Venice to check its territorial expansion.
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) against Venice, defeating the Venetians at Agnadello (1509). When his Italian territories were attacked (1511) by Pope Julius II's Holy LeagueHoly League,
in Italian history, alliance formed (1510–11) by Pope Julius II during the Italian Wars for the purpose of expelling Louis XII of France from Italy, thereby consolidating papal power.
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, he committed their defense to Gaston de Foix, but after Gaston's death (1512) his troops were forced by the Swiss (then the pope's main allies) to evacuate Milan. In 1513 the Swiss routed his army at Novara while another army was defeated at Guinegate by Maximilian and King Henry VIII of England, also the pope's allies. In 1514 he made a truce with all his enemies save Maximilian. Louis endeavored to rule France with justice and moderation, and was known as the Father of the People.


See J. S. C. Bridge, A History of France from the Death of Louis XI, Vol. III–IV (1929).

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Louis XII

1462--1515, king of France (1498--1515), who fought a series of unsuccessful wars in Italy
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(1) The Getty is fortunate to own three leaves from this important manuscript, including Bathsheba Bathing (ms 79), Louis XII of France Kneeling in Prayer (ms 79a), and The Presentation in the Temple (ms 79b).
For Louis XII's entry into Paris in 1498 a tableau depicted the Archangel Gabriel baptizing the children Herod had massacred.
The book contains illustrations completed by Jean Bourdichon in 1498 and 1499 for Louis XII. It is thought that the book may have been brought to England by Mary Tudor, Louis XII's third wife.
The tapestries, whose origins and history are as mysterious and enigmatic as their designs, could have belonged to Anne of Brittany, who married King Louis XII in 1499 (6).
The original was painted between 1500 and 1510 by Leonardo da Vinci for Florimand Robertet, the Secretary of State to the King of France, Louis XII.
Did you also know that in distant France, King Louis XII ruled from his imperial toilet or King James I was killed in one or Charles V, who ruled Germany and Spain, was born on a commode or Elvis Presley died on one?
Louis XII's] singers to be extremely good, it seems to us nevertheless that the organs and wind instruments that serve them are not as lovely and agreeable as these [at Heidelberg]' (matter in square brackets in quotations here and below are from the translation under review - not the reviewer's interpolations (Eds.)).
As Mere Sotte he enjoyed the favor of Louis XII and took advantage of his fool's costume to launch scathing attacks against the king's enemy Pope Julius II.
Source: Bouillon, Robert de la Marck, Duke de, Histoire des choses memorables advenues de regnes de Louis XII et Francois I.
Not only did Machiavelli, through his diplomatic missions, come to know intimately such leaders as Louis XII, Julius II, the Emperor Maximilian, and Cesare Borgia but he also used his time to advantage, nothing political tricks that actually worked and building up his store of psychological truths.
In 1498, released from ecclesiastical duties, he traveled to France as papal legate and was made duc de Valentinois by a grateful Louis XII (thereafter he was known as Valentino, or il duca Valentino ).
In the event of war, the French king Louis XII was counting on Scottish support.