Louis XII

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Louis XII,

1462–1515, king of France (1498–1515), son of Charles, duc d'OrléansOrléans, Charles, duc d'
, 1391–1465, French prince and poet; nephew of King Charles VI. After the assassination of his father, Louis d'Orléans, he became (1407) titular head of the Armagnacs (see Armagnacs and Burgundians).
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. He succeeded his father as duke. While still duke, he rebelled against the regency of Anne de Beaujeu and was imprisoned (1488), but was released (1491) by his cousin King Charles VIII, whom he succeeded (1498) on the throne. Immediately after his accession he ensured the continuance of the personal union of Brittany and France by having his first marriage annulled and marrying his predecessor's widow, Anne of BrittanyAnne of Brittany,
1477–1514, queen of France as consort of Charles VIII from 1491 to 1498 and consort of Louis XII from 1499 until her death. The daughter of Duke Francis II of Brittany, she was heiress to his duchy.
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. Thereafter the king and his minister, Georges d'AmboiseAmboise, Georges d'
, 1460–1510, French statesman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He became archbishop of Rouen in 1493. In 1498, as an intimate friend of the new king, Louis XII, he became chief minister.
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, attempted to assert French claims in Italy (see Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
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). Louis conquered Milan and Genoa, but he failed to secure Naples, which he had conquered in alliance with King Ferdinand IIFerdinand II
or Ferdinand the Catholic,
1452–1516, king of Aragón (1479–1516), king of Castile and León (as Ferdinand V, 1474–1504), king of Sicily (1468–1516), and king of Naples (1504–16).
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 of Aragón. By the treaties of Blois (1504), Louis attempted a compromise with Spain and with Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, who had so far remained an inactive opponent; the treaties subsequently collapsed, and the king's daughter Claude, whose marriage to Maximilian's grandson Charles of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) was to have been the keystone of the new entente, was betrothed to her cousin, Francis of Angoulême, later King Francis IFrancis I,
1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor
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. In 1507, Louis suppressed the revolt of Genoa (1506–7), and in 1508 he joined the League of Cambrai (see Cambrai, League ofCambrai, League of,
1508–10, alliance formed by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII of France, Pope Julius II, King Ferdinand V of Aragón, and several Italian city-states against the republic of Venice to check its territorial expansion.
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) against Venice, defeating the Venetians at Agnadello (1509). When his Italian territories were attacked (1511) by Pope Julius II's Holy LeagueHoly League,
in Italian history, alliance formed (1510–11) by Pope Julius II during the Italian Wars for the purpose of expelling Louis XII of France from Italy, thereby consolidating papal power.
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, he committed their defense to Gaston de Foix, but after Gaston's death (1512) his troops were forced by the Swiss (then the pope's main allies) to evacuate Milan. In 1513 the Swiss routed his army at Novara while another army was defeated at Guinegate by Maximilian and King Henry VIII of England, also the pope's allies. In 1514 he made a truce with all his enemies save Maximilian. Louis endeavored to rule France with justice and moderation, and was known as the Father of the People.

Bibliography

See J. S. C. Bridge, A History of France from the Death of Louis XI, Vol. III–IV (1929).

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Louis XII

1462--1515, king of France (1498--1515), who fought a series of unsuccessful wars in Italy
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(1) The Getty is fortunate to own three leaves from this important manuscript, including Bathsheba Bathing (ms 79), Louis XII of France Kneeling in Prayer (ms 79a), and The Presentation in the Temple (ms 79b).
We learn that King Louis XII of France had a commode under his throne, from where he discharged his duties!
It was believed to have been commissioned for Louis XII of France, and is considered one of his greatest works.
King Louis XII of France took only two baths in his life.
A 15th century book that was written for King Louis XII of France is to be placed on display in February at London's Victoria and Albert Museum.
Others with their fingers in the pie were the Habsburg Emperor, Maximilian I, and Louis XII of France, who had succeeded to the Italian policy of his predecessor, Charles VIII, and had his eye on Naples.
(57) The progress of the ordinance was also a recurrent topic during the discussions Fr ancesco Pandolfini, the Florentine ambassador, held with French representatives at the court of Louis XII of France at Blois.