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Louis XIII,1601–43, king of France (1610–43). He succeeded his father, Henry IVHenry IV,
1553–1610, king of France (1589–1610) and, as Henry III, of Navarre (1572–1610), son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret; first of the Bourbon kings of France.
..... Click the link for more information. , under the regency of his mother, Marie de' MediciMarie de' Medici
, 1573–1642, queen of France, second wife of King Henry IV and daughter of Francesco de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany. She was married to Henry in 1600. After his assassination (1610) she became regent for her son Louis XIII.
..... Click the link for more information. . He married Anne of AustriaAnne of Austria,
1601–66, queen of France, daughter of King Philip III of Spain. Married to the French king Louis XIII (1615), she was neglected by her husband and sought the society of the court intriguer, Mme de Chevreuse.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1615. Even after being declared of age in 1614, he was excluded from affairs of state by his domineering mother. In 1617 he caused the assassination of her minister Concino ConciniConcini, Concino
, d. 1617, Florentine adventurer, favorite of Marie de' Medici, queen of France, who exerted great influence after the assassination of Marie's husband, Henry IV in 1610, and succeeded the duke of Sully as minister.
..... Click the link for more information. , with the aid of his own favorite, Charles d'Albert, duc de LuynesLuynes, Charles d'Albert, duc de
, 1578–1621, constable of France, minister and favorite of King Louis XIII. With the king's collaboration he caused the assassination of Concino Concini (1617), took over the government, and forced Marie de' Medici into exile.
..... Click the link for more information. , and Marie de' Medici was forced into retirement. He was reconciled to her in 1622 and entrusted (1624) the government to her protégé, Cardinal RichelieuRichelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, duc de
(Cardinal Richelieu) , 1585–1642, French prelate and statesman, chief minister of King Louis XIII, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1630, urged by his mother to discharge Richelieu, he instead sent his mother again into exile. Melancholy and retiring by nature, Louis thenceforth gave full support to Richelieu and his successor, Cardinal MazarinMazarin, Jules
, 1602–61, French statesman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, b. Italy. His original name was Giulio Mazarini. After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court (1634–36), he entered the service of France
..... Click the link for more information. . Richelieu strengthened royal authority and centralized government control. Louis's reign was remarkable for the establishment of the French Academy and for the work of St. Francis de SalesFrancis de Sales, Saint,
1567–1622, French Roman Catholic preacher, Doctor of the Church, and key figure in the Counter Reformation in France. He was a member of an aristocratic family of Savoy and was trained for the law, but he entered (1593) the priesthood against his
..... Click the link for more information. and St. Vincent de PaulVincent de Paul, Saint,
1580?–1660, French priest renowned for charitable work, b. Gascony. He was ordained in 1600. There are conflicting stories about his capture by pirates and enslavement in Tunis and his subsequent escape.
..... Click the link for more information. in religion, René DescartesDescartes, René
, Lat. Renatus Cartesius, 1596–1650, French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist, b. La Haye. Descartes' methodology was a major influence in the transition from medieval science and philosophy to the modern era.
..... Click the link for more information. in philosophy, and Pierre CorneilleCorneille, Pierre
, 1606–84, French dramatist, ranking with Racine as a master of French classical tragedy. Educated by Jesuits, he practiced law briefly in his native Rouen and moved to Paris after the favorable reception of his first play, Mélite
..... Click the link for more information. in literature.
See V. L. Tapié, La France de Louis XIII et de Richelieu (1952); H. W. Chapman, Privileged Persons (1966).
1601--43, king of France (1610--43). His mother (Marie de M?dicis) was regent until 1617; after 1624 he was influenced by his chief minister Richelieu