Louis XVIII


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Louis XVIII,

1755–1824, king of France (1814–24), brother of King Louis XVILouis XVI,
1754–93, king of France (1774–92), third son of the dauphin (Louis) and Marie Josèphe of Saxony, grandson and successor of King Louis XV. In 1770 he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette.
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. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled (1791) to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries. He was recognized as king by the émigrés after the death (1795) of Louis XVII. He passed his exile on the Continent and in England. With the assistance of Charles de TalleyrandTalleyrand or Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles Maurice de
, 1754–1838, French statesman and diplomat.
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, he was restored (1814) to the French throne by the allies after their entry into Paris. He adopted a conciliatory policy toward the former revolutionists and granted a constitutional charter. Forced to flee once more on the news of the return of Napoleon I, he returned with the allies (1815) after the defeat at Waterloo had ended Napoleon's rule of a Hundred DaysHundred Days,
name given to the period after the return of the deposed French emperor, Napoleon I, from Elba. The Hundred Days are counted from Mar. 20, 1815, when Napoleon arrived in Paris, to June 28, 1815, when Louis XVIII was restored for the second time as king, following
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. His chief ministers were at first moderates—Armand Emmanuel, duc de RichelieuRichelieu, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de
, 1766–1822, French statesman. An émigré from the French Revolution, he served Russia as governor of Odessa (1803) and of the Crimea (1805).
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, and Élie DecazesDecazes, Élie
, 1780–1860, French statesman, a favorite of King Louis XVIII, who made him a duke in 1820. A lawyer and judge, Decazes was made minister of police in 1815 and was influential in the French government even before he became (1819) premier.
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—but the ultraroyalists, led by Louis's brother, the comte d'Artois (later Charles XCharles X,
1757–1836, king of France (1824–30); brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded. As comte d'Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI.
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), triumphed after the assassination (1820) of the count's son, Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry. Louis, then old and suffering from gout, allowed the ultraroyalists to take control. The new ministry headed by the comte de VillèleVillèle, Jean Baptiste Séraphin Joseph, comte de
, 1773–1854, French statesman and premier (1822–28). Elected (1815) a deputy after the Bourbon restoration, he became leader of the extreme royalists in the chamber of deputies.
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 was thoroughly reactionary. Electoral laws were revised to increase the influence of the wealthy classes, and civil liberties were curbed. This trend continued and was intensified during the reign (1824–30) of his successor, Charles X. See RestorationRestoration,
in French history, the period from 1814 to 1830. It began with the first abdication of Emperor Napoleon I and the return of the Bourbon king, Louis XVIII, but was interrupted (1815) by Napoleon's return (the Hundred Days).
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, in French history.
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Louis XVIII

1755--1824, king of France (1814--24); younger brother of Louis XVI. He became titular king after the death of Louis XVII (1795) and ascended the throne at the Bourbon restoration in 1814. He was forced to flee during the Hundred Days
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
La charte est datee de la dix-neuvieme annee du regne de Louis XVIII, annulant la legitimite de tous ceux qui l'ont precede, a commencer par l'empereur ...
EXCLUSIVE J Hartwell has played host to Louis XVIII and the Emperor of Japan
Admittedly, Louis XVIII was immensely fat and gout-ridden and out of touch: He wanted to get rid of the tricolor and pretended he was in the nineteenth year of his reign, as if Napoleon had been just an evil dream.
Duly kept on as foreign minister by Louis XVIII, he represented France at the Congress of Vienna where he supported Saxony (a major private pay-master), but also the swingeing cuts in the French military budget which turned out to be a major reason for the popularity that greeted Napoleon when he returned to France from Elba in March 1815.
The message that the angel gave to Martin, if it were true, would mean that all of the post-Revolutionary sovereigns of France, Louis XVIII, Charles X, and Louis-Philippe, were usurpers, and that the true king remained to be found and returned to his proper station.
One veteran remarked that perhaps now Louis XVIII would feel obligated to return the stolen goods to the rightful owner.
Surgeon to Louis XVIII and Charles X, he apparently offered the latter 1 million francs in his hour of need.
This had a text by Metastasio and music by Leonardo Vinci, and was staged at the Roman palace of Cardinal de Polignac, French ambassador to the Holy See, on 26 November 1729 in celebration of the birth of the Dauphin Louis, son to Louis XV and father-to-be of three future kings, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X.
In that same year he published his first book of poems, Odes et poesies diverses, which earned him a pension from Louis XVIII. In 1823 he published his first novel, Han d'Islande (Hans of Iceland, illustrated by George Cruikshank).
His loyalty was gratefully acknowledged by Louis XVIII, who bestowed upon him the Legion of Honor and made him a knight of the order of St.
The younger brother of Louis XVI was then restored to the throne of France as Louis XVIII (1755-1824).
These legitimists of the new school are as rampant and as violent as any of the Jesuit Cabinet of Louis XVIII, or the ~Gentilhommes' who counselled and ruined Charles X.