had spent three years in exile in England between 1831 and 1848, and over five separate visits had acquired a respect for, and knowledge of, the country unrivalled among European heads of state.
himself was unsure about how far to go with these conquests, and he tended to follow the advice of his energetic minister, the Marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat, a shrewd and determined imperialist, who served in several different cabinet positions from 1858-1867.
In 1858, following the attempted assassination of Louis-Napoleon
by Italian nationalists based in England and led by Felice Orsini, France began a major expansion of its maritime defense budget and its naval shipbuilding program.
Bonaparte etait redevable de sa popularite, et donc de son election au poste de President de la Deuxieme Republique, d'abord et surtout a son lien de famille avec Napoleon 1er.
Carpeaux was, however, favoured with the most lucrative commissions of his career between 1865 and 1867, when he executed busts and full-length portraits of the imperial heir, Louis-Napoleon
, who was born in 1856.
This was one reason for Louis-Napoleon
's popularity and rise to power in 1848.
Here the book retraces in two lengthy chapters the history of the highly centralized (a characteristically Haussmannian quality) public transportation monopolies that were set up under Louis-Napoleon
to meet the new needs of a capital the physical and social appearances of which were evolving out of all recognition: the new Parisian transport systems thus represented a partial response to the changes that were being brought about by, inter alia, the growth of the tourist industry, the development of the railways and the continued demographic growth of Paris.
First, he believes that peasants voted for Louis-Napoleon
for president in large numbers against the will of notables and journalists, because they viewed him as a man who would bring radical social change to the countryside.
In France, in a sudden coup on December 2, 1851, Louis-Napoleon
filled Paris with army units, arrested legislators, fired on unarmed protesters, and made himself absolute master of France.
Or ce mal personnifie, qui, par quelques simples coups d'eponge et de pinceau aurait pris l'apparence du bien, c'est Louis-Napoleon
Bonaparte, responsable des massacres du boulevard Montmartre, "histrion du crime" (598), presente comme corrompu, souille a la fois par le sang des victimes du coup d'Etat et par le vice et la debauche.
It collapsed as the result of the February Revolution of that year which brought to power the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis-Napoleon
(Napoleon III), emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
Instead, he sees the army's operational and strategic shortcomings as products of a fatal combination of unfortunate legacies of the Napoleonic experience, and Emperor Louis-Napoleon
's indecisive leadership.