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Luanda(lo͞oăn`də, –än`də), city (1995 est. pop. 3,000,000), capital of Angola, a port on the Atlantic Ocean. It is Angola's largest city, its chief port, and its administrative center. Manufactures include processed foods, beverages, textiles, cement and other construction materials, plastic products, metalware, cigarettes, and shoes. Petroleum, found nearby, is refined in the city. Luanda has a natural harbor, with a fine port. The chief exports are coffee, cotton, sugar, diamonds, iron, and salt. Founded in 1575 by the Portuguese as São Paulo de Luanda, the city has been the administrative center of Angola since 1627 (except for 1640–48). From c.1550 to c.1850 it was the center of a large slave trade to Brazil. After Angolan independence (1975), much of the city's large Portuguese population left and was replaced by large numbers of Cubans, many of them soldiers. In the early 1980s, the city's oil refinery was damaged during civil war. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. The Univ. of Angola, the 17th-century Fort of São Miguel, and the Governor's Palace are in Luanda.
(Loanda), a city and the administrative center of Angola. Its population was about 500,000 in 1970, including the suburbs. Luanda is a port on the Atlantic, with a cargo turnover of 1.2 million tons in 1967. It has a railroad station and an international airport. The country’s leading industrial center, the city has an oil refinery and enterprises of the cement, textile, clothing, footwear, food, metalworking, and chemical industries. Among its educational and cultural institutions are the University of Luanda, the Museum of Angola (natural history), the Dundo Museum (history and ethnology), and a national and municipal library. Near the city are oil fields and a tire factory. The Mabubas hydroelectric power plant is on the Dande River. Luanda was founded in 1575.