For that, an adaptive observer and Luenberger observer
 are designed to estimate the state variables ([x.sub.1], [x.sub.2], [x.sub.3], [x.sub.4], and [x.sub.5]) based only on the measurement of the states ([x.sub.1],[x.sub.4]).
The extended Kalman filter (KF) [31-33], sliding-mode observer [34, 35], and Luenberger observer
[36,37] were applied to estimate the SOC using the ECM model.
Then, a Luenberger observer
which also serves as the reference model is employed to make the error dynamic model satisfy the SPR property.
The system (1.2) is commonly called a Luenberger observer
and the matrices H, X, G are to be determined such that
Here, we have attempted to extend the traditional Luenberger observer
[36, 37] to generate a novel ROO scheme.
According to a Luenberger observer
a correction term is added to the state space equation of motion, but the used Kalman-Bucy filter is based on a different design approach instead of pole placement.
To solve the leader-following multiagent finite-time consensus problem, consider the Luenberger observer
for agent i with form
Sen, 'A Comparative Study of a Luenberger Observer
and Adaptive Observer-Based Variable Structure Speed Control System Using a Self-Controlled Synchronous Motor', IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, APRIL 1990.
Lassaad and M.Ben Hamed "An MRAS-based full order Luenberger Observer
for Sensorless DRFOC of Induction Motors" ICGST-ACSE Journal, Volume 7, Issue 1, May 2007.
Thus, this type of observer is included in the estimation methods type, based on an adaptation mechanism, along with the Extended Luenberger Observer
(ELO) proposed by Kubota (Kubota et al., 1990) and the Model Adaptive System (MRAS) observer proposed by Schauder (Schauder, 1992).
A proportional-integral observer (PIO), which is an extension of the traditional Luenberger observer
, can be used for fault identification in linear dynamic systems (Linder et al.