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descendants of Native Americans whose language belonged to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). The ancestors of the Lumbee occupied the coast of the SE United States and were part of the Eastern Woodlands cultureEastern Woodlands culture,
term used to refer to Native American societies inhabiting the eastern United States. The earliest Woodland groups were the Adena and Hopewell, who lived in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys between 800 B.C. and A.D. 800.
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 area. Generally friendly to the Europeans, they taught the settlers their methods of fishing, hunting, and farming and introduced them to many of their foods. They were one of the few Eastern tribes to escape removal to Indian Territory in the 19th cent., but were pressed into service by the Confederacy during the Civil War. They were formerly known as the Croatan Indians and the Robeson County Indians. In 1990 there were over 50,000 Lumbee in the United States, many of mixed Native American, African, and European ancestry; they are centered in Robeson co., North Carolina. The tribe's focus on education is embodied in Pembroke State Univ., founded in 1887 as a Lumbee college and now part of the Univ. of North Carolina system.
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TRIGO said its intent to leverage Lumbee's proven expertise to further expand its business in the US.
* Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, Pembroke, N.C., April--July 2017
And there's Ben Chavis in California, a Lumbee who worked his way from poverty to earn three Ph.D.s, a fortune in real estate, and a successful tenure as principal of the American Indian Public Charter School (AIPCS) in Oakland.
Bryan Brayboy (2005), a prominent Lumbee scholar, notes that "locating theory as something absent from stories and practices is problematic in many Indigenous communities and in the work of anthropologists who seek to represent Indigenous communities" (p.
Malinda Maynor Lowery agrees and details how in the 1930s the Bureau of Indian Affairs used "blood quantum" as an Indian identity marker, a decision that doomed subsequent Lumbee recognition efforts.
1996, '"Where Do you Stay At?" Homeplace and Community Among the Lumbee', in S.
Smith explains how Sylvester Clark, a man of mixed black, Lumbee, Cherokee, and white ancestry created a persona as the son of a Blackfoot Chief.
HTC was approached by the Lumbee River Electric Membership Corporation (LREMC), a not-for-profit regional electric utility, to service a portion of Robeson County, North Carolina through a new fiber-based network.
The Eastern Band of Cherokee urged Congress to withhold recognition from the Lumbee people in North Carolina, and the Navajo Nation resisted the secession of the San Juan Paiutes.