Lunda


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Lunda

(lo͞on`də), ethnic group of central Africa. The Lunda speak a Bantu language and now live in S Congo (Kinshasa), E Angola, and N Zambia. In the 16th cent. Lunda living near the upper Lulua and Kasai rivers assimilated political ideas from the Luba (especially regarding divine kingship and bureaucratic administration) and formed a kingdom ruled by the mwata yamvo, or king. The kingdom grew powerful, partly through trade (especially for firearms) with the Portuguese in Angola, and by the 18th cent. had expanded to include most of the area between the Kwango and Luangwa rivers. At the same time, dissident Lunda migrated eastward; some of them founded the kingdom of the Mwata Kazembe, centered near the Luapula River, which was a flourishing trading state in the period from the late 18th to the early 19th cent. Both kingdoms declined with the establishment of European rule in the late 19th cent.

Bibliography

See J. Vansina, Kingdoms of the Savanna (1966).

Lunda

 

a state that took shape during the 15th to 17th centuries in the Congo River basin (near the sources of the Kasai, Sankuru, and Zambezi rivers) and dissolved by the end of the 19th century. The Lunda people constituted its ethnic base. The state was headed by a ruler (Mwata Yamvo), who shared his authority with his coruler wife (Lukonkesha). A council of the upper aristocracy, which selected the rulers’ heir, enjoyed considerable power.

The Lunda state reached its apogee in the second half of the 17th century; its borders enclosed territory from the sources of the Cuanza and Kwango rivers on the west to Lake Mweru in the east. Vestiges of the clan-tribal order coexisted among the Lunda with a slaveholding social order, and feudal social relationships had begun to form. The military commanders (Kazembe) became hereditary rulers of conquered regions, paying tribute to the Mwata Yamvo. The Lunda state carried on trade with the coastal and central regions of Africa. It declined in the 18th century. Wars with the Chokwe at the end of the 19th century completed the ruin and dissolution of the state.

REFERENCES

McCulloch, M. The Southern Lunda and Related Peoples. London, 1951.
Byvang van den. “Notice historique sur les Balunda.” Congo, 1937, vol.1, no. 4; vol. 2, no. 2.

Lunda

 

a plateau in Central Africa, in the countries of Zaïre and Angola. It is composed of Paleogene and Neocene continental sandstones and sands occurring horizontally on a Precambrian crystalline basement. The central part of the plateau, which forms the divide between the Kasai and Zambezi rivers, is a flat plain at elevations of 1,300-1,600 m, with considerable marshes in some places. In the north the plateau descends in steps to the Congo depression, and in the south it slopes gently to the Kalahari depression. The climate is a hot subequatorial one with wet summers. The plateau is covered by open woodlands; on the northern slope there are high-grass savannas with fringing forests. Rich deposits of diamonds and deposits of manganese ore (Kisanga) are worked in the Kasai river basin.

References in periodicals archive ?
It seems that in a year or two Lunda will also go totally out of the reach of poor people like us, said Kulsoom Bibi, who works in homes to earn livelihood for her orphan children.
Socie-dade Mineira de Catoca (SMC), which operates the world's fourth-biggest diamond mine in Lunda Sul, generated revenues of $438m in 2009 and profits of $70m.
Lunda was also part of the Milwaukee Constructors team that worked on the Zoo Interchange west of Milwaukee.
However, in May, Endiama signed a deal with South Africa's Trans Hex Group, the biggest listed diamond mining company in Africa, and also three Angola mining partners, to explore for diamonds at the Luana mine, in Lunda Norte.
In this respect, it is significant to point out that he presents Lunda expansionism and imperialism as the result of a successful and symbiotic encounter between two ethnic groups.
Foster's ability to stockpile product and ship it on an 'as needed' basis is critical to the construction schedule and another example of their value proposition," noted Steve Hoeschele, Lunda Construction Company Material Coordinator.
Rather unsurprisingly, the Lunda began to settle down and adopt a "conventional" attitude to families and procreation, and became a formidable Empire in Central Africa.
During the evacuation, a makeshift emergency staff was created and included men and women from the local fire and police departments, Wisconsin Gas, Wisconsin Electric, Lunda Construction, Wisconsin Central Railroad, and Waupaca County.
Caryospora undata Schwalbach, 1959 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), was found in the feces of three of 25 (12 percent) tufted puffins, Lunda cirrhata (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) housed at Sea World of Florida.
Tutor Perini Corporation (NYSE: TPC), a leading civil and building construction company, today announced that its Civil Group subsidiary, Lunda Construction Company, in a joint venture with Shafer Contracting, has been awarded a $116 million contract by the Minnesota Department of Transportation for the I-35E Cayuga Bridge Project in St.
Mine victim persons such as women, men and children of Luanda, Cuando Cubango, Bengo, Lunda Sul, Lunda Norte, Moxico, Bi, Kwanza Norte and Kwanza Sul.
Eroding buying power in Pakistan has increased demand for second-hand clothes which is evident from interest of people in Lunda Bazaars, he added.