anticoagulant

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anticoagulant

(ăn'tēkōăg`yələnt), any of several substances that inhibit blood clot formation (see blood clottingblood clotting,
process by which the blood coagulates to form solid masses, or clots. In minor injuries, small oval bodies called platelets, or thrombocytes, tend to collect and form plugs in blood vessel openings.
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). Some anticoagulants, such as the coumarin derivatives bishydroxycoumarin (Dicumarol) and warfarin (Coumadin) inhibit synthesis of prothrombin, a clot-forming substance, and other clotting factors. The coumarin derivatives compete with vitamin K, which is a necessary substance in prothrombin formation (see vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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). They are only effective after the body's existing supply of prothrombin is depleted. Another anticoagulant, heparin, is a polysaccharide (see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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) found naturally in many cells. It acts in several ways: by preventing prothrombin formation; by preventing formation of fibrin, another clotting substance; and by decreasing the availability of a third clotting factor, thrombin. Heparin is obtained by extracting it from animal tissues. Anticoagulants are used to treat blood clots, which appear especially frequently in veins of the legs and pelvis in bedridden patients. Therapy helps to reduce the risk of clots reaching the lung, heart, or other organs. Heparin causes an instantaneous increase in blood-clotting time, and its effect lasts several hours.
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anticoagulant

[¦an·tē‚kō′ag·yə·lənt]
(pharmacology)
An agent, such as sodium citrate, that prevents coagulation of a colloid, especially blood.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

anticoagulant

1. acting to prevent or impair coagulation, esp of blood
2. an agent, such as warfarin, that prevents or impairs coagulation
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
study of pregnancy in lupus patients, points to lupus anticoagulant as the main driver of pregnancy morbidity in patients with aPL.
The plotting of the results of a cross-mixing test with altering the proportion of normal control plasma to the patient's plasma yields a convex APTT value curve that faces upward in the presence of inhibitors (including coagulation factor-neutralizing antibodies and lupus anticoagulants) and downward in the presence of a factor deficiency (Figure 3).
Lupus anticoagulant testing was performed on the citrated plasma samples from day 4 using Vitaclot (Vital Diagnostics, Bella Vista, NSW Australia).
We then performed an aPTT mixing test and selected all samples without correction for lupus anticoagulant screening.
We performed a computerized search of the literature (PubMed, EMBASE, Medline through PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science) from 1990 up to December 2012, using the search terms lupus coagulation inhibitor, lupus anticoagulant, antiphospholipid, factor VIII, antithrombin deficiency, protein S, protein C, prothrombin G20210A, factor V Leiden, thrombophilia, venous ulcers, postphlebitic syndrome, post-thrombotic syndrome, venous stasis syndrome.
Transient lupus anticoagulants associated with hemorrhage rather than thrombosis: The hemorrhagic lupus anticoagulant syndrome.
The study examined the association between adverse pregnancy outcome and the presence of three different aPLs: lupus anticoagulant [LAC], anticardiolipin antibody [aCL] and antibody to beta 2 glycoprotein I.
These were pericarditis, malar rash, polyarthritis, and a positive mixing test experiment indicating presence of a lupus anticoagulant (anti-phospholipid antibody subtype), a positive LE cell test and persistent lymphopenic leukopenia (1.29 - 1.30x[10.sup.9]/l).
ANA (1:1280, diffuse pattern), anti-cardiolipin IgM (76.6 MPLU/ml) and lupus anticoagulant were positive but more specific tests for SLE such as antidsDNA and extractable nuclear antigen were negative.
Lupus anticoagulant screen and hexagonal lipid correction assay were positive.