Lysosomes


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Lysosomes

 

structures in animal and plant cells, 0.25–0.50 microns in size, that contain about 40 enzymes capable of decomposing (lysing) proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and lipids.

Lysosomes were discovered in 1955 by the Belgian biochemist C. De Duve. They are characterized principally by the presence of enzymes of the acid hydrolase group and by a single-layered lipoprotein membrane that protects the compounds in the cell from the destructive action of the lysosomal enzymes. There are two main types of lysosomes: primary lysosomes, which serve as receptacles for enzymes but are not involved in intracellular digestion; and secondary lysosomes, which are associated with the lytic processes. Secondary lysosomes form by the merger of primary lysosomes with vacuoles containing material used for digestion. They include cytolysosomes, in which the cell components proper are digested—a process called autophagy.

Figure 1. Diagram of development of primary and secondary lysosomes: (1) granular endoplasmic reticulum, (2) Golgl complex, (3) primary lysosomes, (4) plasma membrane, (5) formation of pinocytic vesicle, (6) formation of phagocytic vesicle, (7) food vacuole, (8) cytolysosome, (9) nucleus

It is thought that the membranes of lysosomes either form specially or form from the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi complex. The synthesis of lysosomal enzymes probably occurs in what is called the intracellular conveyor system: ribosome— endoplasmic reticulum—Golgi complex.

Lysosomes have digestive, protective, and excretory functions in the cell. Their role in intracellular digestion is especially pronounced in cells capable of pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Lysosomes also play a role in a number of physiological processes requiring the lysis of cell structures, such as the postpartum involution of the uterus; the protection of the cell from bacteria, foreign bodies, and chemical substances; inflammatory and immunological reactions; and dystrophy and necrosis. The development of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, a number of diseases of the liver and kidneys, and malignant neoplasms is associated with the action of lysosomal factors.

REFERENCES

Znachenie lizosom ν fiziologicheskikh i patologicheskikh protsessakh. Moscow, 1968.
Allison, E. “Lizosomy i bolezni.” In the anthology Molekuly i kletki, fasc. 4. Moscow, 1969. Pages 196–213. (Translated from English.)
Alov, I. A., A. I. Braude, and M. E. Aspiz. “Lizosomy.” In their book Osnovy funktsional’noi morfologii kletki, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969. Pages 133–42.
Aspiz, M. E., and M. A. Starosvetskaia. “Lizosomy.” In Itogi nauki: Seriia Biologiia: Tsitologiia, Obshchaia genetika, Genetika cheloveka, 1970. Moscow, 1971. Pages 71–101.
M. E. ASPIZ
References in periodicals archive ?
26] Meanwhile, the abnormal autophagosomes and lysosomes in downstream of the autophagic flux could also induce the dysfunction of Rab7.
Brucella, Outer membrane protein, Brucella-containing vacuole, Lysosome, Apoptosis.
Degradation of Alzheimer's amyloid fibrils by microglia requires delivery of ClC-7 to lysosomes.
The team found that the N-Trt stoppers were broken off when the compound reached the acidic environment of the lysosomes, but stayed mainly intact in the largely neutral environment of the surrounding cell.
They found their lysosomes were also clogged up, as they note in their conclusion:
As a lysosome inhibitor, CQ led to the aggregation of autophagosomes and increased LC3-II level in diosgenin-treated K562 and Ba[F.
The basal cytoplasm contains free ribosomes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum in the form of whorls and cisternae, multi-vesicular bodies, dense tubules, coated and smooth vesicles, and lysosomes, while the Golgi complexes appear sparse (Figs.
Concomitant with the increase of intralysosomal redox-active iron, ROS largely colocalized with lysosomes.
A coverslip was fitted and the slide incubated in the dark at 10[degrees]C for 15 min to allow lysosomes to take up the dye, prior to visualization under a compound light microscope (400 X mag.
We hypothesize that cadmium induces lysosomes to permeabilize, release cathepsins, leading to apoptosis in osteoblast-like cells Saos-2 and MG-63.
The findings varied, with some tubules showing an abundance of lysosomes in proximal tubular cells and others exhibiting cytoplasmic vacuolization, apical blebbing with numerous lysosomes in the cytoplasmic protrusions, and desquamation and fragmentation of tubular cells, including some with loss of architectural/cellular integrity (frank necrosis) (Figures 4; 5, A and B; 6, A and B; and 7).