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1. the exercise of governmental authority or control
2. the period of time in which a monarch or government has power
3. a prescribed method or procedure for solving a mathematical problem, or one constituting part of a computer program, usually expressed in an appropriate formalism
4. any of various devices with a straight edge for guiding or measuring; ruler
5. Christianity a systematic body of prescriptions defining the way of life to be followed by members of a religious order
6. Law an order by a court or judge
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a proposition that expresses permission or a requirement to perform or refrain from performing, under particular conditions, some act; the word “act” is understood to refer to some action or absence of action. These rules are called rules of permission and obligation, respectively; they are considered in a natural way to be elementary, or rules of the first rank, and are subsumed under the general term “injunction.” Complex rules are rules of the (n+ 1)th rank, obtained by applying injunctions to collections of rules of the nth or lesser rank in such a way that at least one of these rules must be of the nth rank. Ordinary grammatical rules are examples of rules of different, but not very high, ranks. A method is a system of rules of different ranks that includes rules designating the order in which other rules of the same system are introduced and rearranged.

Rules, whose systematic study is the object of deontic (normative) logic, are of importance in daily life and in all branches of science, particularly mathematics, logic, linguistics, ethics, jurisprudence, sociology, and political economy.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An antecedent condition and a consequent proposition that can support deductive processes.


McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


common types of rules
An instrument having straight edges, usually marked off in inches or centimeters and fractions thereof; used for measuring distance and for drawing straight lines.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A set of ordered steps for solving a problem, such as a mathematical formula or the instructions in a program. The terms algorithm and "program logic" are synonymous as both refer to a sequence of steps to solve a problem. However, an algorithm often implies a more complex problem rather than the input-process-output logic of typical business software. See encryption algorithm.


(1) See packet filter and filter bubble.

(2) To select data. Filters use patterns (masks) against which data are compared and only matching data are "passed through," hence the concept of a filter. For example, email clients and servers can look for messages with text patterns that are recognized as spam (see spam filter and Bayesian filtering). An email filter can also be configured to send messages into specific mailboxes or forward mail to another address based on any matching criteria in the message. See algorithmic filter.

(3) To change data. For example, a sort routine changes the sequence of data. A conversion routine (import or export filter) changes one type of data, text or graphics format into another. See import filter, image filter and parse.

rules based

Using "if-this, do that" rules to perform actions. Rules-based products implies flexibility in the software, enabling tasks and data to be easily changed by replacing one or more rules.
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References in periodicals archive ?
3182, 3404-10 (discussing the reasons for eliminating the volitional prong of the cognitive-volitional test, as reflected in the Model Penal Code insanity defense, and returning to the a pure cognitive test, as reflected in the M'Naghten Rule).
Dissatisfied with the M'Naghten rule, the court in Durham announced that "an accused is not criminally responsible if his unlawful act was the product of a mental disease or defect." Id.
(36) Under the M'Naghten rule, the courts charged the jury as if no such mental disease could exist to destroy a person's power of self-control, and that the only way a defendant could be found guilty was if he retained a mental consciousness of right and wrong.
Indeed, the first woman who attempted to use a postpartum psychosis defense in the United States was acquitted in 1951 based upon the M'Naghten rule. (264) In People v.
Critics of the M'Naghten rule argued that the rule was too restrictive because it failed to recognize degrees of incapacity and focused solely on cognitive disability, disregarding mental illnesses that affect volition.
The M'Naghten rules has been criticized because it is only a cognitive standard and does not have a volitional arm.
The M'Naghten Rules were formulated by I5 judges of the Queen's Bench in response to five questions put to them by the House of Lords when they were called to appear to defend the controversial M'Naghten decision.
The M'Naghten Rules, with their focus on delusions understood as wrong beliefs, clearly reflected contemporary psychiatric preoccupations, but transformed the psychiatric foci into distinctly legal constructs widely perceived by psychiatrists to be at odds with the fundamentals of psychiatric understanding (see Teubner, 1989:748-9; see also Forshaw and Rollin 1990:75-101).
The statistics cited above suggest that although insanity pleas were ostensibly evaluated according to the objective criteria known as the M'Naghten Rules, the insanity acquittal was gendered, and subjective notions of appropriate male and female behaviour dictated how jurors would respond to insanity pleas.
The act also seeks to make it more difficult for an accused person to establish an insanity defense, by repealing the American Law Institute's modern standard for determining insanity and restoring the nineteenth-century "M'Naghten Rules.' Also repealed were sentencing provisions for youthful and young adult defendants that had allowed for special rehabilitative treatment for those under 26.