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(mā`nēz), in Roman religion, spirits of the dead. Originally, they were called di manes, a collective divinity of the dead. Manes could also refer to the realm of the dead and, later, to the individual souls of the dead. Eventually, the Romans placated the manes with offerings at the graves of the dead. In later times, when the family tomb was introduced into burial custom, the di manes were identified with the di parentes, the ancestors of the family, and as such watched over the welfare of the family along with the lares and penates.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a family of Czech painters.

Antonin Mánes. Born Nov. 3,1784, in Prague; died there Dec. 23, 1843. Landscape painter; one of the founders of the national school of painting.

In the early years of the 19th century, A. Mánes studied at the Prague Academy of Arts. In 1836 he became a teacher at the academy. Influenced by classicism and romanticism, Mánes informally and poetically yet truthfully depicted his homeland and architectural monuments of the past (View of Hradčany, 1821, City Museum, Prague).

Josef Mánes. Born May 12, 1820, in Prague; died there Dec. 9, 1871. Son of A. Mánes.

J. Mánes studied at the Prague Academy of Arts under his father, F. Tkadlik, and C. Ruben from 1835 to 1845 and at the Academy of Arts in Munich from 1843 to 1848. His early career was influenced by the Nazarenes. A participant in the Prague Uprising of 1848, Mánes addressed his work to the lives of the common people. In his major works he presented a heroic, generalized image of the Czech peasant (decoration of the dial of the clock of the Prague Town Hall, oil, 1864-66, now in the City Museum). Mánes painted portraits (Věndulakova, 1854, National Gallery, Prague) and panoramic landscapes of the countryside (Labe Kraj, 1863, National Gallery, Prague). He also was a graphic artist (various drawings; illustrations for the Královédvor Manuscript, 1857-59).

Kvido Mánes. Born July 17, 1828, in Prague; died there Aug. 5, 1880. Son of A. Mánes.

K. Mánes studied at the Prague Academy of Arts from 1838 to 1851 and in Dusseldorf under B. Vautier from 1868 to 1870. Using broad brushstrokes, he painted scenes from the lives of urban dwellers and children.


Loriš, J. Quido Mánes. Prague, 1937.
Lamac, M. Josef Mánes. Prague, 1956.
Reitharova, E. Antonin Mánes. Prague, 1967. (Bibliography on pages 119-24.)
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


spirits of the dead. [Rom. Rel.: Leach, 672]
See: Death
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.