MPP

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MPP

Multiple Parallel Processing

MPP

(Massively Parallel Processing or Massively Parallel Processor) A multiprocessing architecture that uses many processors and a different programming paradigm than the common symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) found in today's computer systems.

Self-Contained MPP Subsystems
Each CPU is a subsystem with its own memory and copy of the operating system and application, and each subsystem communicates with the others via a high-speed interconnect. In order to use MPP effectively, an information processing problem must be breakable into pieces that can all be solved simultaneously. In scientific environments, certain simulations and mathematical problems can be split apart and each part processed at the same time. In the business world, a parallel data query (PDQ) divides a large database into pieces. For example, 26 CPUs could be used to perform a sequential search, each one searching one letter of the alphabet. To take advantage of more CPUs, the data have to be broken further into more parallel groups.

In contrast, adding CPUs in an SMP system increases performance in a more general manner. Applications that support parallel operations (multithreading) immediately take advantage of SMP, but performance gains are available to all applications simply because there are more processors. For example, four CPUs can be running four different applications. See SMP.


MPP and SMP Architecture
In MPP operation, the problem is broken up into separate pieces, which are processed simultaneously. In SMP, CPUs are assigned to the next available task or thread that can run concurrently.


MPP and SMP Architecture
In MPP operation, the problem is broken up into separate pieces, which are processed simultaneously. In SMP, CPUs are assigned to the next available task or thread that can run concurrently.







Integrated MPP and SMP
In the mid-1990s, Pyramid Technology combined MPP and SMP processing in its Reliant line. The SMP systems attached to a high-speed mesh interconnect that provided unusual flexibility, and the architecture was passed on to future systems after Fujitsu acquired the company. See Fujitsu Siemens. (Image courtesy of Pyramid Technology Corporation.)







ServerNet Mesh Interconnect
The orange disks, purple CPUs and green channels conceptually show the interconnections between CPU and I/O subsystems. ServerNet was a high-speed switch from Tandem when it was a thriving company. (Image courtesy of Tandem Computers.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Burzynski et al., "A rare myelin protein zero (MPZ) variant alters enhancer activity in vitro and in vivo," PloS One, vol.
For example, if bidder i submits a winning bid that is above the price-setting bid when W = 7 and N = 12 as in MPZ, then of bidder i's N - 1 = 11 opponents, one will be the price setter, one will be the lowest losing bidder, B = 3 will have bid below the price-setting bid, A =4 will have bid above the lowest-losing bid, and B - 1 = 2 will have bid between the price-setting bid and the lowest-losing bid.
MPZ 2001/130 b closely resembles the fifth cervical vertebra of Torvoneustes carpenteri referred in Wilkinson et al.
[5] Human genes: PMP22, peripheral myelin protein 22; MPZ, myelin protein zero.
Oral or intravenous MPZ, and prednisone are effective for shrinking hemangiomatous lesions in infants; however, the use of systemic corticosteroids is limited due to the potential for numerous side effects, including growth delay, cushingoid appearance, behavioral changes, irritability, gastrointestinal disturbance, hypertension, adrenal suppression, and compromised immunity (1).
The structures of MK[(pipaz).sub.2] and model compounds, MK[(pip).sub.2] and MK[(mpz).sub.2], were confirmed by [.sup.1]H NMR, FTIR, UV-vis spectra, elemental analysis, and mass spectra.
The MPZ player is only80mm deep and comes with a wall mount or an optional desktop stand.
Additionally, CMT1 has been associated with mutations at the following genes: PMP22, connexin 32 gene or gap junction protein B1 gene (GJB1), the myelin protein zero gene (MPZ), the early growth response gene 2 (EGR2), the myotubularin-related protein 2 gene (MTMR2), the N-myc downstream-regulated protein 2 gene (NDRG1) and the periaxin gene (PRX) (Nelis et al.
These patients were negative for pathogenic variants of PMP22, MFN2, MPZ, GJB1, GDAP1, HSPB1, HSPB8, EGR2, NEFL , and RAB7 .
Several dominant MPZ mutations including R98C present as an infantile onset of dysmyelinating neuropathies.
The material is temporarily housed at the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Zaragoza (MPZ), Zaragoza (Spain).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a novel Tyr145Ser mutation in the myelin protein zero (MPZ, PO) gene causes different phenotypes in homozygous and heterozygous carriers within one family.