Macchiaioli


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Macchiaioli

 

(from Italian macchia, “spot”), a group of Italian painters that arose in Florence about 1860, taking its name from the free painting style of its adherents. The group included the painters T. Signorini, G. Fattori, S. Lega, and G. Abbate and the sculptor A. Cecioni, the group’s theoretician. Almost all had participated in the national liberation movement led by G. Mazzini and G. Garibaldi. The macchiaioli opposed the stiff pomposity of academic painting and the abstract symbolic tendencies of late romanticism, striving to bring their art closer to contemporary reality and selecting democratic subjects. They painted scenes from the recent war, genre scenes, and the Italian landscape, often working in the open air. Their works are characterized by realistic motifs, a simple, almost random, composition, and precise drawing. There is a free, sometimes contrasting, juxtaposition of rich patches of color and light and dark areas. The movement died out in the 1880’s. Some macchiaioli, notably, F. Zandomeneghi and G. de Nittis, were influenced by modern French painting and turned to impressionism.

REFERENCES

Giardelli, M. I macchiaioli e l–epoca loro. Milan, 1958.
Cecchi, E. Macchiaioli toscani d’Europa. Firenze, 1963.
References in periodicals archive ?
Goldie; forgeries by Karl Sim; the Macchiaioli Affair; the disappearance of the painting Psyche by Solomon Joseph Solomon; the disappearance of Urewera Mural by Colin McCahon; the theft of the sculpture Pania of the Reef; and incidents involving Peter Siddell, Toss Woollaston, Colin McCahon, Edward Bullmore, Gottfried LindauerAEs portrait of Kewene Te Haho, Still on Top by Jacques Joseph Tissot, and the collection of Elizabeth Wearn.
16) During the 1850s, a group of mid-century republican painters from Florence called the Macchiaioli transformed traditional representations of central Italian land scapes.
The final chapter introduces Enrico Nencioni, an early Italian advocate for Walt Whitman, whose poetry is a paradigm for the disillusionment that the Haussmann effect occasioned among the Macchiaioli painters of Tuscany.
However, national permutations underscore Realism's elasticity in prostelytizing myriad ideologies, evident in Boime's analysis of the changes in France--traced from the Second Republic to the Franco-Prussian War--but equally apparent through contrasts with the English Pre-Raphaelites, Italian Macchiaioli, German Biedermeier culture, and Civil War America.
21) Examples of art loans that have given rise to Second World War_related claims are the exhibitions of Schiele, Macchiaioli and von Kalckreuth works to New York, London and Florence respectively: see Palmer, Museums and the Holocaust: Law, Principles and Practice (Institute of Art and Law, 2000) pp.
A re-evaluation of Italian art in the decades following the Risorgimeuto has led to the rediscovery of a whole series of avant-garde movements--the Macchiaioli ('sketchers'), the Scapigliatura ('dishevelled') and last, but by no means least, from the 1890s, the Divisionisti or Divisionists.
Volpi's early figurative years, under the influence of the Neapolitan school of Posillipo or the Tuscan Macchiaioli, are well represented in the show.
4) Italian art historians since the early 1960s have worked on the late nineteenth century and have carried out extensive research on the Macchiaioli painters and the Divisionists.
In 1892-94, the Jorgensens were away from San Francisco absorbing art in Venice, Naples, Rome, and Florence, where Chris studied under Rafaele Sorbi of the macchiaioli group of plein-air landscapists who advocated fast-paced, intense observation to depict nature's moods.
As the work stands, the index of rubriche throws up useful references to, for example, aura-aureola, dionisiaco, Grande Guerra, i maestri del sospetto, Menabo, Macchiaioli, malattia, industria, editoria, fascismo, principio di piacere, elzeviro, zdanovismo.
There has been a tendency, as this study shows through its survey of previous criticism, for writing on the Macchiaioli to concentrate on their innovative formalist characteristics; their elevation of the 'macchia', or sketch-like composition in which blocks of colour are used to reproduce the chiaroscuro of the painter's immediate world.
A large collection of 19th Century Italian - Macchiaioli paintings will also be featured.