Mackinder, Sir Halford John

Mackinder, Sir Halford John

(hăl`fərd, məkĭn`dər), 1861–1947, English geopolitician. Educated at Oxford (1887–1905), he led in the revival of British geographical learning. He established geography as an academic subject, teaching at the universities of Reading and London, and was (1903–8) director of the London School of Economics. He was a member of Parliament (1909–22) and later held various imperial posts. In Democratic Ideals and Reality (1904), Mackinder propounded the view of Eurasia as the geographical pivot and "heartland" of history. The theory received little attention in Great Britain and the United States before World War II, but the idea of the heartland as a natural seat of power was adopted in Germany, notably by Karl HaushoferHaushofer, Karl
, 1869–1946, German geographer, theorist of Nazi geopolitics, including the doctrines that the state is a living organism and that race and territory are linked. After a successful military career he became (1921) professor of geography at Munich.
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, and was used to support Nazi geopoliticsgeopolitics,
method of political analysis, popular in Central Europe during the first half of the 20th cent., that emphasized the role played by geography in international relations.
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